Were Men Sixty Cubits Tall ?

In the name of Allah most gracious most merciful.
Assalaamualaikum wa rahmatuallahi wa barakatahu

This hadith deals with the height of Adam alai salaam.[ 60 cubits]

Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.544 Narrated byAbu Huraira
Allah's Apostle said, "The first group of people who will enter Paradise, will be glittering like the full moon and those who will follow them, will
glitter like the most brilliant star in the sky. They will not urinate, relieve nature, spit, or have any nasal secretions. Their combs will be of
gold, and their sweat will smell like musk. The aloes-wood will be used in their centers. Their wives will be houris. All of them will look alike and
will resemble their father Adam (in statute), sixty cubits tall."

Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.543 Narrated byAbu Huraira
The Prophet said, "Allah created Adam, making him 60 cubits tall. When He created him, He said to him, "Go and greet that group of angels, and listen
to their reply, for it will be your greeting (salutation) and the greeting (salutation) of your offspring." So, Adam said (to the angels), As-Salamu
Alaikum (i.e. Peace be upon you). The angels said, "As-salamu Alaika wa Rahmatu-l-lahi" (i.e. Peace and Allah's Mercy be upon you). Thus the angels
added to Adam's salutation the expression, 'Wa Rahmatu-l-lahi.' Any person who will enter Paradise will resemble Adam (in appearance and figure).
People have been decreasing in stature since Adam's creation.

The hadith says when Allah subhanawatala created Adam in heaven,his height was 60 cubits.When he was in heaven he met angels and greeted them,the
hadith talks about Adam alai salaam in heaven & and earth is not mentioned at all.And when humans after judgement day will enter heaven then they will
all be 60 cubits as the height of Adam alai salaam when he was in jannah including him as well.And in the end the Hadith states people have been
decreasing in stature since adam's creation.The decreasing height is on earth alone.because Adam alai salaam's offsprings are born on earth .

here is an example,not much in detail though ,just covering few years.

The age by which final adult height is achieved has been decreasing continuously during the last 200 years.(in England)

excerpts taken from www.bismikaallahuma.org

Allah knows best.

Hadith Of Monkey Stoning

In the name of Allah most gracious most merciful
Assalaamualaikum wa rahmatuallahi wa barakatahu,

Monkey’s stoning hadith.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 5.188 Narrated byAmr bin Maimun
During the pre-Islamic period of ignorance I saw a she-monkey surrounded bya number of monkeys. They were all stoning it, beCause it hadcommitted illegal sexual intercourse. I too, stoned it along with them.

Perception and attention of humans and monkeys r close and many other things.

Possibly monogamous monkeys saw stoning of adulterous men and women,thus they copied it,for stoning was followed by all the ppl of the book(jews &christians).
and Amr bin Maimun too stoned ,this he did in pre-Islamic period of ignorance.other wise muslims dont interfere in matters of animals unless for protection and help.


http://www.rds-online.org.uk/pages/search_results.asp?i_PageID=81&i_ToolbarID=8&\b_Exact=0&i_Record_Position=10&s_Search_String=monkey ,

...16. Monkeys and brain research Monkeys and brain research (neuroscience)


Why are monkeys used?

The complex nature and connectivity of these neural systems in humans is much closer to that found in the monkey brain than in other animals. For
example, certain parts of the brain such as the cerebral cortex are poorly developed in other animals. And the temporal and frontal lobes of the
cortex, which are involved in functions such as perception, attention, memory and planning in the human brain, are underdeveloped in lower animals.

There is very strong evidence that there are structural, functional, behavioural and neurobiological similarities between humans and monkeys. Research into neurological disorders involving higher functions and brain structures such as the frontal lobes depends much more on studies of monkeys
than of other animals. For example, disorders such as depression,
schizophrenia, ...............................................


monogamy in monkeys.

Siamangs have other key attributes such as monogamy, territoriality,a fruit-eating diet, and suspensory behaviour. With their long arms, they are able to hang underneath branches and swing from arm to arm. This type of movement is known as brachiation. Siamangs are unique primates. Come early and you may be lucky to hear them.

This hadith informs monogamous nature of monkey's.

Allah knows best.

House Fly & Cure Bacteriophages

In the name of Allah most gracious most merciful
Assalaamualaikum wa rahmatuallahi wa barakatahu

Bacteriophages & Hadith about Fly & Cure.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.537 Narrated byAbu Huraira
The Prophet said "If a house fly falls in the drink of anyone of you, he should dip it (in the drink), for one of its wings has a disease and the other has the cure for the disease."

The important thing to note is ,the knowledge of the existence of disease and cure in house fly,which was'nt discovered 1400 years ago at the time of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him.

the microbe responsible for ulcers and other stomach ailments can live on houseflies, although it remains to be seen whether flies transmit the pathogen. http://www.sciencenews.org/sn_arc97/6_7_97/ref1.htm

There has long been evidence of bacterial pathogen-suppressing micro-organisms living in houseflies. An article in Vol. 43 of the Rockefeller Foundation's Journal of Experimental Medicine (1927) p. 1037

The flies were given some of the cultured microbes for certain diseases. After some time the germs died and no trace was left of them while a germ-devouring substance formed in the flies - bacteriophages. If a saline solution weere to be obtained from these flies it would contain
bacteriophages able to suppress four kinds of disease-inducing germs and to benefit immunity against four other kinds.

More recently, a Colorado State University website on entomology states, "Gnotobiotic [=germ-free] insects (Greenberg et al, 1970) were used to provide evidence of the bacterial pathogen-suppressing ability of the microbiota of Musca domestica [houseflies] .... most relationships between insects and their microbiota remain undefined. Studies with gnotobiotic locusts suggest that the microbiota confers previously unexpected benefits for the insect host."

So then, flies are not only pathogenic carriers but also carry microbiota that can be beneficent. The fly microbiota were described as "longitudinal yeast cells living as parasites inside their bellies. These yeast cells, in order to perpetuate their life cycle, protrude through certain respiratory
tubules of the fly. If the fly is dipped in a liquid, the cells burst into the fluid and the content of those cells is an antidote for the pathogens which the fly carries." Cf. Footnote in the Translation of the Meanings of Sahih al-Bukhari by Muhammad Muhsin Khan (7:372, Book 76 Medicine, Chapter
58, Hadith 5782).

These fly microbiota are bacteriophagic or "germ-eating". Bacteriophages are viruses of viruses. They attack viruses and bacteria. They can be selected and bred to kill specific organisms. The viruses infect a bacterium, replicate and fill the bacterial cell with new copies of the virus, and then
break through the bacterium's cell wall, causing it to burst. The existence of similar bacteria-killing mechanisms in two bacteriophages suggests that antibiotics for human infections might be designed on the basis of these cell wall-destroying proteins. Science 292 (June 2001) p. 2326-2329.

Bacteriophagic medicine was available in the West before the forties but was discontinued when penicillin and other "miracle antibiotics" came out. Bacteriophages continued to flourish in Eastern Europe as an over-the-counter medicine. The "O1-phage" has been used for diagnosis of all
Salmonella types while the prophylaxis of Shigella dysentery was conducted with the help of phages. Annales Immunologiae Hungaricae No. 9 (1966) in German.

"Phage therapy" is now making a comeback in the West:

First named in 1917 by researcher Felix d'Herelle at France's Pasteur Institute, bacteriophages (or just phages for short) are viruses that prey upon bacteria. They have a simple structure - a DNA-filled head attached by a shaft to spidery "legs" that are used to grip onto the surface of a
bacterium. Once a phage latches onto a bacterium, it injects its payload of genetic material into the bacterium's innards. The bacterium then begins to rapidly produce "daughter" copies of the phage -- until the bacterium becomes too full and ruptures, sending hundreds of new phage particles into
the open world.

Doctors used phages as medical treatment for illnesses ranging from cholera to typhoid fevers. In some cases, a liquid containing the phage was poured into an open wound. In others, they were given orally, via aerosol, or injected. In some cases, the treatments worked well - in others, they did
not. When antibiotics came into the mainstream, phage therapy largely faded in the west.

However, researchers in eastern Europe, including the former Soviet Union, continued their studies of the potential healing properties of phages. And now that strains of bacteria resistant to standard antibiotics are on the rise, the idea of phage therapy has been getting more attention in the
worldwide medical community. Several biotechnology companies have been formed in the U.S. to develop bacteriophage-based treatments - many of them drawing on the expertise of researchers from eastern Europe."


Research on the medical application of bacteriophages is now considered to be in its most promising stage. A University of Pittsburgh researcher said in June 2001, "Given the sheer number and variety of bacteriophages lurking on the planet, the viruses may represent a sizable untapped reservoir of new
therapeutics." Science 292 (June 2001) p. 2326-2329.

Possibilities for use of bacteriophages in disease control is discussed in the article "Smaller Fleas... Ad infinitum: Therapeutic Bacteriophage Redux" in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America [PNAS] Vol. 93 No. 8 (April 16, 1996), 3167-8.

The fact that the fly carried pathophagic or germ-eating agents was known to the ancients, who noticed that wasp and scorpion stings are remedied by rubbing the sore spot with a decapitated fly as mentioned in al-Antaki's Tadhkira (1:140), al-`Ayni's citation of Abu Muhammad Ibn al-Baytar
al-Maliqi's (d. 646) al-Jami` li-Mufradat al-Adwiya wal-Aghdhiya in `Umdat al-Qari (7:304), and al-Sha`rani's Mukhtasar al-Suwaydi fil-Tibb (p. 98).

Avicenna preferred the use of a live chicken slit in two and applied to the wound cf. Ibn al-Azraq, Tas-hîl al- Manafi` (1306 ed. p. 171=1315 ed. p. 147). A similar use is current even today for camel urine according to a University of Calgary website.

In the two world wars the wounds of soldiers exposed to flies were observed to heal and scar faster than the wounds of unexposed soldiers. Even today, fly larvae, or maggots, are used medicinally to clean up festering wounds. They only eat dead tissue and leave healthy tissue alone.

The term wing in hadith is not the literal wing but part….because what if both the wings of a fly fall in the drink,what to do then?even then dip the fly because the point is dipping .Allahu alam.

Click here dictionary meaning of wing

a lateral part or projection of an organ or structure; part of a building
which projects or is extended in a certain direction.

&Also wing can mean more things like the below verse.

15:88 Strain not thine eyes (wistfully) at what We have bestowed on certain classes of them nor grieve over them: but lower thy wing (in gentleness) to
the Believers.

points taken from -- source/

Allah knows best.


Camel's Urine & Its Cure

In the name of Allah most gracious most merciful
Assalaamualaikum wa rahmatuallahi wa barakatahu

Camel’s Urine Drinking In Hadith

Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 8.797 Narrated byAnas bin Malik

A group of people from 'Ukl (or 'Uraina) tribe--but I think he said that they were from 'Ukl--came to Medina and (they became ill, so) the Prophet
ordered them to go to the herd of (Milch) she-camels and told them to go out and drink the camels' urine and milk (as a medicine). So they went and drank
it, and when they became healthy, they killed the shepherd and drove away the camels. This news reached the Prophet early in the morning, so he sent
(some) men in their pursuit and they were captured and brought to the Prophet before midday. He ordered to cut off their hands and legs and their
eyes to be branded with heated iron pieces and they were thrown at Al-Harra, and when they asked for water to drink, they were not given water. (Abu
Qilaba said, "Those were the people who committed theft and murder and reverted to disbelief after being believers (Muslims), and fought against
Allah and His Apostle").

they got punishment because they murdered and commited mischief on earth.

5:33 The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Apostle and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution or
crucifixion of the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides or exile from the land: that is their disgrace in this world and a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter.

Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 1.234 Narrated byAbu Qilaba
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 5.505 Narrated byAnas
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 7.623 Narrated byAnas bin Malik
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 8.794 Narrated byAnas
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 8.796 Narrated byAnas
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 9.37 Narrated byAbu Qilaba

Excerpts taken from

Camel Urine in Arab Medicine

The medicinal properties of the Arabian camel were known to Arab physicians. In his magisterial Canon - "a medical bible for a longer time than any other
work"[4], Ibn Sînâ (Avicenna) mentions that chronic imbalance of the liver produces jaundice, dropsy (istisqâ'), and swelling of the belly and that the
health of the liver can be restored through a temporary diet of camel milk and male Arabian Najîb camel urine, "the most beneficient type of urine,
then human urine."[5] Avicennan textbooks by Ibn al-Azraq (d. 890) and al-Suwaydî (600-690) state, "The cure [for dropsy] is to drink the milk of
the she-camel - together with its urine - fresh out of the udder[6], and to use that every day and leave everything else, for it is extremely efficient
and of proven results."[7]

Ibn Sayyid al-Nâs specifies, "notably desert camels feeding on wormwood and southernwood."[8] Wormwood is among the herbs that are extremely useful in
correcting digestive disorders in general and for helping detoxify the liver in particular, and is used in the treatment of hepatitis.[9]

Thus, Arabian camel urine was a standard prescription in Arabic medicine and remains a staple of Bedouin natural remedies to this day both as diuretic,
snuff and delousing hair wash.[10]

One of the great Arab physicians was the Antiochene Dâwûd ibn `Umar al-Antâkî (d. 1008) who knew Greek as well as Arabic, worked in Cairo and
Damascus, and died in Makka. He produced a number of Arabic treatises, the most famous being his two-volume Tadhkirat Ulîl-Albâb wal-Jâmi` lil-`Ajab
al-`Ujâb or "Memorandum Book for Those Endowed with Hearts and the Encyclopedia of Wonders" - still available in print - in which he says:

Urine differs according to its animal origin but it all tends to heat and dryness provided it does not come from an animal devoid of bile such as the
camel. In the latter case, its dryness is minimal because it is devoid of salinity since nothing breaks down salinity, with water, other than the
bile. All urine types dispel the effects of disease, cure the eye and the ear, chronic cough, difficulty in respiration, the spleen, and uterine
pains, especially aged and/or congealed. The most effective types are human urine then the camel's.[11]

A camel needs eight times more salt than ovines and bovines - 1kg weekly - and the low salinity of its urine is due to the fact that it produces ADH
(anti-diuretic hormone) and aldosterone, a hormone that facilitates reabsorption of urine water from the urinary tracts into blood, reducing the
quantity of urine. The liver has few excess amino-acids to degrade into urea and uric acid - highly toxic substances - because of the camel's vegetarian
regimen. At the same time, aldosterone helps retain sodium at the level of the kidneys, which keeps water in the body. All this produces such a
concentrated urine that the volume excreted can be reduced from 20 to 5 liters.[12]

Use of Animal Urine in Modern Medicine

Use of animal urine is endorsed in mainstream modern medicine. Pregnant mare urine is the source of conjugated equine estrogens and has been marketed for
over fifty years as the pharmaceutical brand Premarin, "an estrogen treatment for menopausal and premenopausal women" especially postpartum -
one of the most prescribed drugs in the United States.[13] It was very recently discovered that adding distilled cow urine to medicaments increases
their effectiveness while decreasing their side-effects, making anti-cancer and anti-tubercular drugs twenty times more effective and anti-bacterial
drugs eighty times more effective.[14] Human "urine therapy" is a staple of ayurveda but remains an underground semi-science in the West.

Malaria, Typhus, Dropsy, or Hepatitis?

Dr. Mahmûd Nâzim al-Nusaymî saw the diseases caused by the fever of Madîna as one of two types: either fever caused by gastrointestinal infections such
as typhoid and other types of salmonella; or malaria-type marsh fever and chills (hummâ al-barda'). The former causes a swelling of the stomach and
intestines while the latter causes a swelling in the pancreas and liver. These diseases are carried by insects such as mosquitoes, which fester in
stagnant-water and vegetation-rich environments.[20]

Two Syrian contemporaries, the savant Shams al-Dîn Ibn al-Qayyim (d. 751) in al-Tibb al-Nabawî ("Medicine of the Prophet") and the eye specialist and
antimonist of Safad al-Kahhâl `Alî ibn `Abd al-Karîm ibn Tarkhân (d. 759) in al-Ahkâm al-Nabawiyya fîl-Sinâ`at al-Tibbiyya ("The Prophetic Prescriptions
in Medical Science") both believed that the disease diagnosed in the hadîth of the `Uraniyyîn was a form of dropsy.[21] Ascites dropsy is caused mostly
by liver imbalance and can lead to cirrhosis.[22] We mentioned the standard Avicennan prescription in such cases. This was tested recently. A researcher
from a teaching hospital in the Sudan presented a study of 30 patients with ascites dropsy, an accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity of the
abdomen that causes distended stomachs.[23] The study found that patients responded slightly better to 150ml of camel urine a day than to the standard
chemical-based medicine, the strong diuretic furosemide.[24] However, ascites is not acquired in a short time and is a lifelong ailment. Nor is it
infectious, so it is unlikely that eight people would contract it in a brief time and all at once.

According to our teacher Dr. Sâmir al-Nass, the likeliest diagnosis of the symptoms and background described in the hadîth of the `Uraniyyîn is that
the patients suffered from viral hepatitis (= literally "swelling"), a highly infectious inflammation of the liver that causes jaundice, bloating
of the abdomen due to accumulation of fluid, and fever. Among its treatments are diuretics and low-fat diets.

By North Africa correspondent David Bamford source
Scientists from the United Arab Emirates have proposed using one of the world's hardiest mammals - the camel - in the campaign to fight and eradicate human diseases. A team led by Dr Sabah Jassim, from the Zayed Complex for Herbal Research and Traditional Medicine, says camels are highly resistant to many deadly viral diseases and believes their antibodies could be used for new drugs.
Camels have a unique physiology that allows them to thrive in some of the world's harshest environments.
They can survive the perils of desert dehydration by storing water in their bloodstream; they can survive lack of food by holding extra fatty tissue in their humps; their milk stays fresh much longer than that of a cow.
Natural immunity
But as well as these advantages, they have immune systems that are so robust. They remain free from many of the viral diseases that affect other mammals, such as foot-and-mouth and rinderpest.
The antibodies that camels carry inside them are structurally much simpler than those of humans, and Dr Sabah Jassim suggests they could be much simpler to replicate artificially than human antibodies.
Writing in the British Institute of Biology's magazine, The Biologist, Dr Jassim says the small size of camel antibodies would also allow them to penetrate deep into human tissue and cells that would not be otherwise accessible.
He said the camel antibodies, by being transported from the desert sands into the laboratory test tube, had the potential to be a vital weapon against human diseases.

[4] William Osler as cited by Monzur Ahmed in his article "Ibn Sînâ, Doctor of Doctors", Muslim Technologist, November 1990.

[5] In Mahmûd al-Nusaymî, al-Tibb al-Nabawî wal-`Ilm al-Hadîth (3:242) and
Muhammad Nizâr al-Daqr, Rawâ'i` al-Tibb al-Islâmî: al-Qism al-`Ilâjî

[6] Jawâd `Alî in al-Mufassal fî Târîkh al-`Arab Qabl al-Islâm asserts they
used to boil the urine first cf. al-Nusaymî, al-Tibb al-Nabawî wal-`Ilm
al-Hadîth (3:237).

[7] Ibn al-Azraq, Tas-hîl al-Manâfi` fil-Tibbi wal-Hikma ["The Facilitation
of Benefits in Medicine and Wisdom"] (1206 Khayriyya Cairo ed. p. 60 =1315
Hamîdiyya Cairo ed. p. 51=another old Cairo edition p. 66) cf. al-Sha`rânî's
epitome of al-Suwaydî titled Mukhtasar al-Suwaydî fil-Tibb (1302 Halabî
Cairo ed. p. 51).

[8] Cited by al-Suyûtî in his Sharh on al-Nasâ'î's Sunan (1:161).

[9] Andrew Pengelly, Herbal Treatments for Hepatitis [Online Document]

[10] Cf. Gibrîl Jabbûr, The Bedouins and the Desert, transl. Lawrence I.
Conrad (State University of New York Press, 1995) and Hilda & Dagg
Gauthier-Pilters, The Camel, Chicago and London, 1981. City Arabs apparently
know it only as a hair tonic.

[11] Al-Antâkî, Tadhkira (Cairo: Maymûniyya 1308/1891 ed. 1:77).

[12] Le chameau roule sa bosse au soleil,
http://www.genista.net/gi/nm/drom-281.htm, and Chameaux, lamas et alpagas
(all in French)

[13] PREMARIN Family of Products; The Truth about Premarin; and Premarin
(Premarine) ERT/HRT & PMU Farms Controversy [Online Documents]

[14] http://www.rfi.fr/fichiers/MFI/Sante/641.asp (in French), quoting the
British magazine Chemistry and Industry. [Online Document]

[20] Al-Nusaymî, al-Tibb al-Nabawî wal-`Ilm al-Hadîth (3:218, 241); al-Daqr,
Rawâ'i` al-Tibb al-Islâmî (1:257).

[21] In al-Nusaymî, al-Tibb al-Nabawî wal-`Ilm al-Hadîth (3:241).

[22] Search "ascites" at Surgical Tutor [Online Document]

and http://health.discovery.com/diseasesandcond/encyclopedia/185.html

[24] http://www.salon.com/health/feature/1999/06/07/urine/index1.html with
the misspelling frusimide.

Allah knows best.


Sayings Of Four Imams On Their Teachings

In the name of Allah most gracious most merciful
Assalaamu alaykum wa rahmatuallahi wa barakatuhu

Sayings Of Four Imams On Their Teachings

Abu Haneefah (rahimahullaah) said:

"When a hadeeth is found to be saheeh, then that is my madhhab."

[Ibn 'Aabideen in al-Haashiyah (1/63) and in his essay Rasm al-Mufti (1/4 from the Compilation of the Essays of Ibn 'Aabideen), Shaikh Saalih al-Fulaani in Eeqaaz al-Himam (p. 62) and others. Ibn 'Aabideen quoted from Sharh al-Hidaayah by Ibn al-Shahnah al-Kabeer, the teacher of Ibn al-Humaam]

"It is haram (prohibited) for someone who does not know my evidence to give fatwaa (verdicts) on the basis of my words." Another narration adds, "... for we are mortals: we say one thing one day, and take it back the next day."

[Ibn 'Abdul Barr in Al-Intiqaa' fi Fadaa'il ath-Thalaathah al-A'immah al-Fuqahaa' (p. 145), Ibn 'Aabideen in his Footnoes on Al-Bahr ar-Raa'iq (6/293) and in Rasm al-Mufti (pp. 29, 32) & Sha'raani in Al-Meezaan (1/55) with the second narration. Similar narrations exist on the authority of Abu Haneefah's companions Zafar, Abu Yoosuf and 'Aafiyah ibn Yazeed; cf. Eeqaaz (p. 52).

"When I say something contradicting the Book of Allah the Exalted or what is narrated from the Messenger (saaws), then ignore my saying."

[Al-Fulaani in Eeqaaz al-Himam (p. 50), tracing it to Imaam Muhammad and then saying, "This does not apply to the mujtahid, for he is not bound to their views anyway, but it applies to the muqallid."]


Imaam Maalik ibn Anas (rahimahullaah) said:

"Truly I am only a mortal: I make mistakes (sometimes) and I am correct (sometimes). Therefore, look into my opinions: all that agrees with the Book and the Sunnah, accept it; and all that does not agree with the Book and the Sunnah, ignore it."

[Ibn 'Abdul Barr in Jaami' Bayaan al-'Ilm (2/32), Ibn Hazm, quoting from the former in Usool al-Ahkaam (6/149), and similarly Al-Fulaani (p. 72)]


Imaam Shaafi'i (rahimahullaah) said:

"The sunnahs of the Messenger of Allah (saaws) reach, as well as escape from, every one of us. So whenever I voice my opinion, or formulate a principle, where something contrary to my view exists on the authority of the Messenger of Allah (saaws), then the correct view is what the Messenger of Allah (saaws) has said, and it is my view."

[Related by Haakim with a continuous sanad up to Shaafi'i, as in Taareekh Dimashq of Ibn 'Asaakir (15/1/3), I'laam al-Mooqi'een (2/363, 364) & Eeqaaz (p. 100).]


Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahimahullaah) said:

"Do not follow my opinion; neither follow the opinion of Maalik, nor Shaafi'i, nor Awzaa'i, nor Thawri, but take from where they took."

[Fulaani (p. 113) ]

"Do not copy your Deen from anyone of these, but whatever comes from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) and his Companions, take it; next are their Successors, where a man has a choice."

"Following (ittibaa') means that a man follows what comes from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) and his Companions; after the Successors, he has a choice."

[Abu Daawood in Masaa'il of Imaam Ahmad (pp. 276-7)]

"The opinion of Awzaa'i, the opinion of Maalik, the opinion of Abu Haneefah: all of it is opinion, and it is all equal in my eyes. However, the proof is in the narrations (from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) and his Companions)."

[Ibn `Abdul Barr in Jaami' Bayaan al-'Ilm (2/149).]

"Whoever rejects a statement of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) is on the brink of destruction."

[Ibn al-Jawzi (p. 182)2)]

Allah knows best


Biography Of Imam Ibn Majah

In the name of Allah most gracious most merciful
Assalaamu alaykum wa rahmatuallahi wa barakatuhu

Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Majah (r.a) - [209 - 273 A.H.]

Imam Ibn Majah was born in the city of Qazvin in the northern Persian province of Dailam. After gaining ahadith from the many great religious scholars of his city, he travelled to seek knowledge at the young age of 21. Imam Ibn Majah is said to have visited Basrah, Kufah, Baghdad, the Hijaz, Makkah, Syria and Egypt to hear and gather ahadith.

Amongst his teachers were Jabbara ibn al Mughlis, Ibrahim ibn al-Munzar, Hisham ibn Umar and more Abu Bakr ibn Shaibah.

His status
Ibn Khallikan writes that Imam ibn Majah held the position of an Imam in the subject of hadith.
Abu al-Ali Khalili says he was a great scholar of Qur’anic exegesis, ahadith and history.
Adh Dhahabi stated that he was a hafiz and warehouse of Prophetic knowledge.

Imam ibn Majah is known to have authored 3 books, popularly known Sunan ibn Majah, at-Tafsir and at-Tarikh.

Imam Ibn Majah departed from this world during the blessed month of Ramadan 273 A.H. in Qazvin, the city of his birth.

Allah knows best


Biography Of Imam An Nasai

In the name of Allah most gracious most merciful
Assalaamu alaykum wa rahmatuallahi wa barakatuhu

Ahmad ibn Shu'aib an-Nasa'i (r.a) - [215 - 303 A.H.]

Imam an-Nasa'i was born in the town of Nasa' in the Persian province of Khorasan. After gaining hadith from the teachers his own city, Imam an-Nasa'i travelled through Khorasan, Iraq, the Hijaz Syria and Egypt gaining ahadith. Egypt was where Imam an-Nasa'i settled and established his center for teaching and studies here.

Imam an-Nasa'i was said to have exhausted many of his days and nights in prayers, repeatedly performed Hajj and also joined the Muslim army to participate in battle. He was very particular of the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh), had a hatred for deviation and avoided the circles of kings and nobles.

His status
Ibn Khallikan writes 'He was the Imam of hadith of his age.'
Daraqutni says 'He was more distinguished than all the muhaddithun of his time.'
He is well known for Sunan an-Nasa'i which is a collection of 5751 sound ahadith. In it he also describes the flaws of a hadith, exposes any disagreements on the title, names and kunyat of narrators and clarifies the variations between different versions of a hadith.

His teachers are many, the first being Muhaddith Qutaibah ibn Sa'id al Balkhi. Some others are Ishaq ibn Rahawaih, Muhammad ibn Nasr, Muhammad ibn Bishr and the famous Abu Dawud.

His students came from all over the Muslim world, and some of the more famous of them are Ali ibn Jafar at-Tahawi, Abul Qasim at-Tabrani, Muhammad ibn Mu'awiyah al Andalusi, Abu Jafar at-Tahani and also his own son.

Imam an-Nasa'i travelled to Damascus, Syria in 302 A.H. where he noticed people displaying some hostility towards Hazrat Ali (R.A). He therefore wrote a book to honor the character of Hazrat Ali (R.A) and started lecturing from it in a Masjid. He had only read a few lines when he was accused of being a Shi'i and was beaten badly by a crowd, such he received severe injuries to his body. In this state he requested some admirers to take him to Makkah, and it was after reaching Makkah Imam an-Nasa'i passed away.

Allah knows best


Biography Of Imam Abu Dawud

In the name of Allah most gracious most merciful
Assalaamu alaykum wa rahmatuallahi wa barakatuhu

Imam Abu Dawud (202 - 275H)

Name, Genealogy and Lineage
Imam Abu Dawud Sulaiman ibn Ash`ath ibn Ishaq ibn Bashir ibn Shaddad ibn `Umar ibn `Imran al-Azdi Sajastani.

Year and Place of Birth
Imam Abu Dawud was born in Sajistan, a famous city in Khurasan in the year 202 A.H. He belonged to the Arab tribe, Azd. Even though he was born in Sajistan he spent the greater part of his life at Basrah which was the seat of Islamic learning in his time. Imam Abu Dawud also travelled for collecting hadith. Many times he visited Bagdad. He also went to Hijaz, Egypt, al-Jazirah, Nishapur, Syria and Isfahan.

Special Attributes
He was blessed with an exceptional mind. Imam Abu Dawud had to read a book only once to commit its entire contents to memory. He was well versed in the criticism of hadith and an expert in distinguishing the sound hadith from the weak and defective ones.

Only four persons are reported to have earned their names for the criticism of hadith. They are: Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim, Imam Abu Dawud and Imam Nasa'i. Imam Abu Dawud lived during the time when the Muslim world was full of eminent scholars. He had so much command over hadith, he was considered by many as Imam al-muhaddithin of his time.

Besides his expertise in hadith he was also a great jurist. He had keen insight in fiqh and ijtihad. He was a religious man. He led a pious and ascetic life. He devoted most of his time for worship, devotion and remembrance of Allah. He always kept away from men of rank, the company of sultans and courtiers.

It is stated that Imam Abu Dawud used to wear one of his sleeves wide and the other correctly sized. When he was asked for the reason of this oddity he replied, "To store notes on hadith. I consider widening the other sleeve unnecessarily as an extravagance". It is not clear to which school of thought he belonged. Some scholars say he was a Hanbali jurist, others regarded him as a Shafi'i jurist.

His Work
Imam Abu Dawud heard hadith from 300 persons who were his teachers. Some were: Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ishaq ibn Rahawaiy, Abu Thaur, Yahya ibn Ma'in. For one to grasp his elevated status, he narrated hadith to the teachers of Imam Ahmad. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal also narrated one hadith from him. Among the students of Imam Abu Dawud are great personalities like:
Ibn Arabi, Abu `Isa al-Tirmidhi and Abu `Abdur-Rahman An Nasa'i.

They were transmitters of his famous work Sunan Abu Dawud. Imam Muslim was also one of his pupils. Imam Abu Dawud's works are:

Kitab Al Radd Ala' Ahl al Qadar

Kitab Al Masa'il

Musnad Malik

Kitab Al Marasil

Sunan Abu Dawud

Sunan Abu Dawud
His most famous of all his works is Sunan Abu Dawud. It contains 4800 traditions which were taken out from a collection of 500,000 hadith.

He completed its compilation at Bagdad in 241 A.H. He presented the completed compilation to his beloved teacher Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal who was greatly pleased at this collection.

Sunan Abu Dawud is an important collection of hadith: Most of the scholars have assigned it to third position among the six authentic books of hadith. It is only after the compilation of Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.

A few statements from scholars of hadith concerning Sunan Abu Dawud:

Al-Khattabi said:

Sunan Abu Dawud is an excellent book. No such parallel work has been produced so far in religious sciences. It has gained popularity amongst the people. It has a decisive position among various classes of scholars and jurists. All have benefited equally from it. The people of Iraq, Eygpt, Maghrib and most of the countries depended upon it.

Ibn al-Jawzi said:

Abu Dawud was an eminent doctor of hadith and an outstanding scholar. No one has compiled a book like his Sunan.

Ibn Kathir remarked:

Sunan Abu Dawud is considered to be a famous and popular work among scholars.

Imam Abu Dawud himself has stated:

From this book of mine four (4) hadith are sufficient for an intelligent and insightful person. They are:

Deeds are to be judged only by intentions.
Part of a man's good observance of Islam is that he leaves alone that which does not concern him.
None of you can be a believer unless you love for your brother that which you love for yourself.
The permitted (halal) is clear, and the forbidden (haram) is clear, between these two are doubtful matters. Whosoever abstains from these doubtful matters has saved his religion.
The traditions compiled in Sunan Abu Dawud were generally followed by companions, successors and their followers. It is a basic source of knowledge about the legal points of views held by Imam Malik, Sufyan Al-Thawri and Al-Awza'i. It serves as an arbiter for disagreement among jurists.

His Death
Imam Abu Dawud died on Friday 16th Shawwal 275 A.H. at the age of 72.

Allah knows best


Biography Of Imam Tirmidhi

In the name of Allah most gracious most merciful
Assalaamu alaykum wa rahmatuallahi wa barakatuhu

Imam Tirmidhi (209 - 279 H)

Imam Tirmidhi was born in the year 209 A.H. during the reign of the Abbasid Khalifa Ma'mun al-Rashid. The Abbasid Caliphate, despite its brilliant contributions to Islam, brought along with it many thorny problems. Greek Philosophy had a free flow into the Islamic world. This was fully sanctioned by the government until eventually it declared the Mu'tazila school of thought as the state religion. Anyone who opposed the Mu'tazila school of thought would be opposing the state. With the influence of Greek philosophy infiltrating within the people, many Muslims began attempting to reconcile between reason and revelation. As a result they deviated themselves and misled many innocent weak Muslims away from Allah and His Prophet (s). Many scholars of Islam had come to the fore in order to defend the Shari`ah. Forgeries and interpolations in Hadith by rulers who wished to fulfil their personal motives was common. In the first century `Umar bin Abdul `Aziz (r) initiated a movement for the compilation of the holy hadith of the the Prophet (s) as there was a fear of it being lost. Eventually this gigantic task was undertaken by six towering scholars of Islam. One of them was Imam Abu `Isa Muhammed ibn `Isa Tirmidhi

Having grown up in an environment of learning, together with possessing many great qualities naturally drove Imam Tirmidhi to dedicate his life totally towards the field of Hadith. He obtained his basic knowledge at home and later travelled to far off lands in search of this great science. He studied Hadith under great personalities such as Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim and Imam Abu Dawud. In some narrations Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim are his students as well.

Once Imam Bukhari mentioned to him "I have benefited more from you than you have benefitted from me." Musa ibn `Alaq once said: "When Imam Bukhari passed away, he left no one in Khurasan who compared with Abu `Isa Tirmidhi in knowledge, memory, piety and abstinence." According to `Abdullah ibn Muhammed Al-Ansari, Imam Tirmidhi's Al-Jami` is more beneficial than the works of Bukhari and Muslim since their compilations can only be understood by a very deep sighted scholar whereas Al-Jami` can be understood by both the scholar and the layman.

Imam Tirmidhi said that he compiled this book and presented it to the learned of Hijaz, Iraq and Khurasan and they were pleased with it. Who ever has this book in his home, it is as though he has the Prophet (s) speaking to him there.

His remarkable memory:
Imam Tirmidhi had an exceptionally remarkable memory. If he heard something once he never forgot it. Once on his way to Makkah, Imam Tirmidhi met a scholar of hadith (muhaddith) from whom he had previously copied two chapters of hadith. Thinking that he had the notes with him he asked the scholar if he would allow him to read out these two chapters so that he could correct any errors. After realizing that he did not have those notes with him he took a blank piece of paper and read out the entire two parts from memory. When the muhaddith realized what he was doing he rebuked Imam Tirmidhi saying: "Have you no shame, why are you wasting my time." Imam Tirmidhi assured him that he had committed all the ahadith to memory. The scholar was not convinced, even though Imam Tirmidhi had recited all the hadith from memory. Imam Tirmidhi requested him to recite to him some other hadith. The scholar recited forty ahadith which Imam Tirmidhi thenrepeated without making a single error, thus showing his remarkable power of committing hadith to memory.

Another incident has been recorded by Hakim ul-Ummat in his Al-Misk-us-Zaki, depicting the profound memory of Imam Tirmidhi. He writes:

Imam Tirmidhi had lost his sight towards the latter portion of his life. Once whilst on a journey, at a certain point he bowed his head. When asked as to why he did this, he replied: "Is there not a tree here whose branches hang over in such a manner that it harms those who are passing by." They answered in the negative. He was quite shocked when he heard this as he distinctly remembered there being a tree and was worried as to whether his memory was failing him or not. He stopped the caravan immediately and asked his companions to enquire from the locals whether a tree had existed there or not. "If it is established that no tree existed then I will stop narrating the Hadith of the Prophet (s) due to my weak memory." On inquiry it was shown to them that a tree had previously existed over there but due to it being a hindrance to travelers it was removed.

Imam Tirmidhi had a large number of students from all over the world. The most famous amongst them were Haysam ibn Kulaib, Abul Abbaas and Muhammed ibn Ahmed Shah Abdul `Aziz describes Imam Tirmidhi in the following words: "His memory was unique and his piety and fear of Allah ta'la was of a very high caliber. He would cry so much out of the fear of Allah, that towards the end of his life he lost his sight."

According to Ibn Taymiyya and Shah Waliullah, Imam Timidhi was an independent Jurist (Mujtahid). Moulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri is of the opinion that he was a Shafi`i.

In the year 279 A.H. in a village called Bawag at the age of 70 , Imam Tirmidhi left this temporary abode for the everlasting life of the hereafter. May Allah swt fill his grave with light. The enormity of his sacrifices and the extent to which he served the religion can never be fully comprehended.

Many books of hadith were compiled before Imam Tirmidhi decided to compile his Al-Jami`. Dawud Tayalisi and Ahmed ibn Hanbal had compiled books consisting of both authentic and weak hadith. Later Imam Bukhari compiled his Sahih and omitted all weak narrations from it. His main objective was to derive masa'il / laws from the relevant hadith. Later Imam Muslim compiled his book with a primary focus on the isnad (different chain of narrators). Imam Nasa'i's aim was to mention the discrepancies of the hadith whilst Abu Dawud prepared a book which became the basis for the fuqaha. Imam Tirmidhi had combined the styles of Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and Nasa'i by mentioning the discrepancies regarding the narrators and also making his compilation a basis for the jurists.

The Special characteristics of al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi

1. It is a Sunan and a Jami`.

2. Only 83 hadith are repeated.

3. Imam Tirmidhi omits the major portion of the hadith and only mentions that part which is relevant to the heading. (title)

4. After mentioning a hadith he classifies it narration (whether it is authentic or weak, etc.)

5. He specifies the narrators names, e.g. if the narrators kunya (honorific name) was mentioned, he would then mention his proper name and vice versa.

6. One hadith in Tirmidhi is a thulaathiyaat i.e. the transmitters of the hadith betwen Imam Tirmidhi and the Prophet (s) are only three.

7. Every hadith in Tirmidhi al-Jami` is "ma'mul bihi" (practised upon by the jurists.)

8. He explains the different madhahib together with their proofs.

9. He gives an explanation to all difficult ahadith.

10. His book has been set out in an excellent sequence, hence to look for a hadith is very easy.

11. There is no fabricated hadith in the entire book.

The conditions of Imam Tirmidhi in the selection of hadith
According to the commentators of Al-Jami Imam Tirmidhi maintained the following conditions throughout the compilation of his book.

1. He never narrated hadith from those who fabricated hadith. 2. Allama Tahir Muqaddisi mentions that al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhicontains four types of hadith:

[1] Those ahadith that conform with the conditions of Bukhari and Muslim.

[2] Those ahadith that conform with the conditions of Abu Dawud and Nasa'i.

[3] Those ahadith that have certain discrepancies either in the sanad or matan.

[4] Those weak hadith that some fuqaha have relied on.

3. Imam Tirmidhi accepts a hadith which is narrated with the word "a'n" provided both the narrators are contemporaries. 4. After mentioning a weak hadith, he explains the state of its weakness. 5. A mursal hadith is accepted by Imam Tirmidhi when it is supported by a chain of narrators which is not broken.

The status of al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi among the six authentic books of hadith. al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi has been categorized as fifth amongst the six most authentic books of hadith. According to the most preferred opinion, Bukhari enjoys the highest status, followed by Muslim, Abu Dawood, Nasai, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah respectively. Haji Khalifa in al-Kashf al-Dhunoon has categorised Tirmidhi in third position. Al-Dhahabi has written that Tirmidhi in actual fact should be holding the third position, but due to him bringing weak narrators like Kalbi and Masloob its status has dropped. However, looking at the manner in which he set out his book it seems that Haji Khalifa's opinion is best.

Some of the commentaries of Tirmidhi
{1.} 'A'ridat-ul-Ahwazi

An Arabic compilation of Qadi Abu Bakr ibn `Arabi (r) in 7 volumes.

{2} Qut-ul Mughtazi

Compiled by Jalal ad-Din Suyuti (r).

{3} Tuhfat-ul Ahwadhi

Written by Sheikh Abdur Rahmaan Mubaarakpuri in 10 volumes. He is very critical against the Ahnaaf.

The Terminology of Imam Tirmidhi
The classification of hadith was firmly established by Ali ibn Madini (r) and later by his student Imam Bukhari (r). However Imam Tirmidhi was the first Imam to base his book on these classifications.

Imam Tirmidhi classifies most of the Ahadith and mentions its reliability. Altogether Imam Tirmidhi uses nine different terms.

1.) sahih: That hadith wherein each reporter must be trustworthy, he must have the power of retention and the sanad of the hadith must go back to Nabi (sallallahu alyhi wasallam) without any interruption, it must agree with those of other reliable reporters and there should be no hidden defect in the matan or the sanad. N.B. Imam Tirmidhi does not consider it a prerequisite that a sahih Hadith must have several chains of narrators.

2.) hasan: That hadith which does not contain a reporter accused of lying, it is not shaaz and the hadith has been reported through more than one sanad.

3.) da`eef: Such a hadith wherein the narrators are not trustworthy, or they don't posses the ability of retaining, or there is a break in the chain of narrators, or the hadith is shaaz or mu'alall.

4.) gharib: According to Imam Tirmidhi a hadith is classified gharib for one of the following reasons..

(a) it is narrated from one chain only.

(b) there is some addition in the text.

(c) it is narrated through various chains of transmitters but having within one of its chains an addition in the sanad.

5.) hasan gharib: These two can be combined. i.e. hasan refers to the uprighteousness of the narrators whilst gharib implies that he is alone in transmitting the hadith.

6.) sahih gharib: This term implies that the hadith is authentic but there is only one sanad.

7.) hasan sahih gharib: This hadith is hasan since it has several chains of transmitters, it is sahih as the chains are all authentic and it is gharib in the words that Imam Tirmidhi narrated.

8.) hasan sahih: This term has caused much confusion amongst the Muhadditheen since hasan is lower in rank than sahih. While sahih indicates to the excellent retention power of a narrator, hasan indicates to a deficiency in this regard hence it seems that both are opposites and is not possible to reconcile. The mutaqaddimeen have given many explanations to this :

[1] Ibn Hajar (r) has mentioned that the word "aw" is omitted hence the hadith will be either hasan or sahih. [2] Ibn Salah is of the opinion that when a hadith is reported with two sanads, one should be considered as hasan and the other as sahih. [3] Ibn Kathir says that Imam Tirmidhi has made up a new term which implies the hadith to be higher than hasan but lower than sahih. [4] Ibn Daqiq ul `Eid is of this opinion that sahih and hasan are not opposites. Rather they belong to the same category. However hasan will be considered as inferior to sahih hence they both can be combined. This opinion has been given most preference by the Muhadditheen.


By the third century A.H. a number of collections on hadith were compiled. Imam Tirmidhi was one of those scholars who contributed greatly towards this field of hadith. In this modern age the world at large is deeply indebted to Imam Tirmidhi for his compilation of hadith. May Allah swt make it possible for all of us to benefit tremendously from this priceless collection of hadith.

Allah knows best


Biography Of Imam Muslim

In the name of Allah most gracious most merciful
Assalaamu alaykum wa rahmatuallahi wa barakatuhu

Imam Muslim (202 - 261H)

The full name of Imam Muslim is Abu'l-Husain 'Asakir-ud-Din Muslim b. Hajjaj al-Qushayri al-Naisaburi. "Muslim," as his nasba shows, belonged to the Qushayr tribe of the Arabs, an offshoot of the great clan of Rabi'a. He was born in Naisabur (Nishapur) in 202/817 or 206/821. His parents were religiously minded persons and as such he was brought up in a pious atmosphere. This left such an indelible impression on his mind that he spent the whole of his life as a God-fearing person and always adhered to the path of Righteousness. He was in fact a saint of high calibre. His excellent moral character can be well judged from the simple fact that he never indulged in backbiting, a very common human failing.

Imam Muslim travelled widely to collect traditions in Arabia, Egypt, Syria and Iraq, where he attended the lectures of some of the prominent Traditionists of his time: Ishaq b. Rahwaih, Ahmad b. Hanbal, 'Ubaydullah al-Qawariri, Qutaiba b. Sa’id, 'Abdullah b. Maslama, Harmalah b. Yahya, and others.

Having finished his studies, be settled down at Nishapur. There he came into contact with Imam Bukhari, and was so much impressed by his vast knowledge of Hadith and his deep insight into it that he kept himself attached to him up to the end of his life. He was an ardent admirer of another great-teacher of Hadith, Muhammad b.Yahya al-Dhuhali and attended his lectures regularly, but when the difference of opinion between Muhammad b. Yahya and Imam Bukhari, on the issue of the creation of the Holy Qur'an, sharpened into hostility, Imam Muslim sided with Imam Bukhari and abandoned Muhammad b. Yahya altogether. He was thus a true disciple of Imam Bukhari.

He wrote many books and treatises on Hadith, but the most important of his works is the collection (Jami’) of his Sahih Some of the commentators of Ahadith are of the opinion that in certain respects it is the best and most authentic work on the subject. Imam Muslim took great pains in collecting 300,000 Traditions, and then after a thorough examination of them retained only 4000, the genuineness of which is fully established.1

He prefixed to his compilation a very illuminating introduction, in which he specified some of the principles which he had followed in the choice of his material.

Imam Muslim has to his credit many other valuable contributions to different branches of Hadith literature, and most of them retain their eminence even to the present day. Amongst these Kitab al-Musnad al-Kabir 'Ala al-Rijal, Jami' Kabir, Kitab, al-Asma' wa'l-Kuna, Kitab al-Ilal, Kitab al- Wijdan are very important.

His Methods of Classification and Annotation
Muslim's Sahih comes next to it. However, in certain respects the latter is considered superior to the former. Imam Muslim strictly observed many principles of the science of Hadith which had been slightly ignored by his great teacher Imam Bukhari (may Allah have mercy on both of them). Imam Muslim considered only such traditions to be genuine and authentic as had been transmitted to him by an unbroken chain of reliable authorities and were in perfect harmony with what had, (been related by other narrators whose trustworthiness was unanimously accepted and who were free from all defects.

Moreover, Imam Bukhari, while describing the chain of narrators, sometimes mentions their kunya and sometimes gives their names. This is particularly true in case of the narrators of Syria. This creates a sort of confusion, which Imam Muslim has avoided.

Imam Muslim takes particular care in according the exact words of the narrators and points out even the minutest difference in the wording of their reports.

Imam Muslim has also constantly kept in view the difference between the two well-known modes of narration, haddathana (he narrated to us) and akhbarana (he informed us). He is of the opinion that the first mode is used only when the teacher is narrating the hadith and the student is listening to it, while the second mode of expression implies that the student is reading the hadith before the teacher. This reflects his utmost care in the transmission of a hadith.

Imam Muslim has taken great pains in connecting the chain of narrators. He has recorded only that hadith which, at least, two reliable tabi'in (successors) had heard from two Companions and this principle is observed throughout the subsequent chain of narrators.

His Students
Imam Muslim had a very wide circle of students, who learnt Hadith from him. Some of them occupy a very prominent position in Islamic history, e.g. Abu Hatim Razi, Musa b. Harun, Ahmad b. Salama, Abu 'Isa Tirmidhi, Abu Bakr b. Khusaima, Abu ‘Awana and Hafiz Dhahabi.

His Death
Imam Muslim lived for fifty-five years in this world. Of this short span of his life he spent most of his time in learning Hadith, in Its compilation, in its teaching and transmission. He always remained absorbed in this single pursuit and nothing could distract his attention from this pious task. He died in 261/875, and was buried in the suburbs of Nishapur.


1 It is essential to remove one of the serious misgivings under which so many Orientalists and westernised Muslim scholars are labouring. When they are told that Imam Muslim selected 4,000 ahadith out of a total collection of 300,000, they think that since quite a large number of ahadith were unreliable, therefore, these were rejected, and then jump to the conclusion that the whole stock of hadith is spurious and should be rejected outright. This betrays utter ignorance of the critics even about the elementary knowledge of hadith. Matn (text) is not the basis on which is calculated the number of ahadith. Hadith is counted on the chain of transmission. Thus when we say that Imam Muslim collected 300,000 ahadith and included only 4,000 in his compilation, it does not imply that he rejected the rest of the whole lot of the Prophet's sayings being unreliable. What this means is that the words and deeds of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) were transmitted to Imam Muslim through so many chains of transmission out of which he selected 4,000 chains as most authentic and narrated the text on their authority. A text (matn) which is transmitted through one hundred isnads is in Hadith literature treated as one hundred traditions. For example, the text of the first hadith in Bukhari (The Actions Are Based on Intention) is counted as a selection of one out of 700 ahadith since it has been transmitted through such a large number of isnads.

Allah knows best


Biography Of Imam Bukhari

In the name of Allah most gracious most merciful
Assalaamu alaykum wa rahmatuallahi wa barakatuhu

Imam Bukhari (194 - 265)

After the Sahâbah al-kirâm, Imâm al-Bukhârî ranks as the most eminent of those pious people who have conferred endless bliss upon the Ummah of the Holy Prophet sallallâhu `alayhi wa sallam. The greatest evidence of this is the book of Ahâdîth an-Nabawî he compiled, commonly known as Sahîh al-Bukhârî. It is universally acknowledged as the most authentic book after the Holy Qur'ân. So long as their is one Muslim left on the Earth, the blessings of Imâm Bukhârî will have a place in his or her Îmân and Islâm. Let us briefly examine below a short survey of his life and works.

His Early Years

Imâm al-muhaddithîn Hadrat Imâm Abû `Abdullâh Muhammad ibn Ismâ`îl al-Bukhârî was born on the 13th of the Islâmic month of Shawwâl, 194AH, in the famous city of Bukhara, of the land "beyond the canal" - present day Uzbekistan -. The father of Imâm Bukhârî, Ismâ`îl ibn Ibrâhîm ibn Mughîrah al-Ja`fî, was a great muhaddith and ascetic from whom he inherited his characteristics of literary zeal and excellence. During infancy his father passed away and his mother took on the entire responsibility of bringing him up. Imâm Bukhârî became blind at a young age. He had recourse to many famous and skilled doctors of his time but their treatments made no difference. His mother was a pious worshipper and a righteous woman. She cried out for help in the court of Allâh the Almighty, for her child and begged for the restoration of his eyesight. At last, "the river of mercy flowed over her," and Almighty Allâh accepted her invocation. One night, she visited Ibrâhîm `alayhis-salâm in a dream and was told, "Allâh has restored the sight of your son because of your intense and beautiful invocations." In the morning, as Imâm Bukhârî got up from his bed, glimmers of light reached out into his eyes.

Primary Education and Interest in Hadîth

When Imâm Bukhârî reached the age of ten and after acquiring his elementary education, Almighty Allâh inserted the interest in the science of Ahadîth into his heart and he obtained admission in the Hadîth class of Bukhara. He obtained his educations after vigorous study. A year later, he had such a good retention of the text and chains of transmission of Ahâdîth, that sometimes teachers got their corrections from him. Imâm Bukhârî had been acquiring religious education with competance and swiftness and at the tender age of sixteen, he had completely learnt by heart the books of `Abdullâh ibn al-Mubârak, al-Wakî` and other learned companions of al-Imâm Abû Hanîfa radiyallâhu `anhum.

The Visit to the Haramayn and the Commencement of His Ahâdîth Compilation

At the age of eighteen, He visited Makkah accompanied by his mother and elder brother, Ahmad ibn Ismâ`îl. After performing the pilgrimage, his brother returned with the company of his mother, but Imâm Bukhârî stayed there for further education. Meanwhile, he wrote a book called, Qadâyâ as-Sahâbah wat-Tâbi`în. After this he went to Madînah al-munawwarah to compile the famous book of Asmâ` ar-rijâl (Names of men of transmission) called, Târîkh al-kabîr, while sitting by the tomb of the Holy Prophet sallallâhu `alayhi wa sallam during moonlight hours. Immediately after completing this, a series of imitations had begun. Muhammad ibn Yûsaf al-Furyâbî said that at the time he had copied Târîkh al-kabîr, Imâm Bukhârî did not yet have any facial hair.

Imâm Bukhârî travelled to cities far and wide for the transmission of Ahâdîth and had gained immense knowledge while sitting far from his own country for several years. He stated himself, "To seek knowledge, I travelled to Egypt and Syria twice, Basra four times, spent six years at the Hijâz and left for Kufa and Baghdad on so many occasions accompanied by Muhaddithîn."

His Remarkable Memory

Imâm Bukhârî was a man with a very strong memory. When we look at his memory, it is as if his body from head to toe stored it. Seeing his memory, the memory of Abû Hurayrah radiyallâhu `anhu is rekindled in the hearts of Muslims. Hashid ibn Ismâ`îl states that in his childhood: "Imâm Bukhârî used to go with us to the Scholars of Basra to listen to Ahâdîth. All of us used to write Ahâdîth down, except Imâm Bukhârî. After sixteen days, we thought about it and we condemned Imâm Bukhârî saying that, 'you had wasted so many days work by not writing down Ahâdîth.' Imâm Bukhârî asked us to bring our notes to him. So we all brought our notes, upon which Imâm Bukhârî began to read Ahâdîth one by one from the top of his head until he narrated to us more than fifteen thousand! Hearing these, it seemed that Imâm Bukhârî was reteaching us all of the Ahâdîth we had noted."

Muhammad ibn Azhar Sajistânî says: "I used to go to Sulaymân ibn Harab accompanied by Imâm Bukhârî for listening to Ahâdîth. I used to write the Ahâdîth, but Imâm Bukhârî wouldn't. Somone said to me, 'Why doesn't Imâm Bukhârî note the Ahâdîth down?' I told him, 'if you missed any Hâdîth in writing, you could obtain it from the memory of Imâm Bukhârî.'"

Imâm Bukhârî's memory could be understood by knowing that if he glanced through a book, it would be committed to memory instantly. In his early period of acquiring knowledge, he memorised seventy thousand Ahâdîth and later in his life, this figure reached three hundred thousand. Of these, one hundred thousand were sahîh (rigorously authenticated) and two hundred thousand were not sahîh (hasan, da`îf, etc). Once he went to Balkh and the inhabitants desired that he should recite one Hadîth from each of his shaykhs. Then he orated from one thousand Shaykhs one thousand Ahâdîth.

Sulaymân ibn Mujâhid says: "One day I was present in the company of Muhammad ibn Salâm Baykandî. Muhammad ibn Salâm said, 'If you had come earlier, I would have shown you the child who has seventy thousand Ahâdîth in his memory.' Sulaymân stood up from his company and started looking for Imâm Bukhârî. Shortly he found him and asked, 'Are you the one who has committed seventy thousand Ahâdîth to memory?' Imâm Bukhârî replied, 'I have learnt more Ahâdîth than this by heart. I even know the place of birth, death and residence of most of those companions from whom the Ahâdîth are narrated."

His Extraordinary Intellect

Along with his extraordinary memory, he also had a very sharp intellect. He did not depend on pen and paper as much as he relied on his mind and memory. People examined the capabilities of Imâm Bukhâri in the science of Hadîth repeatedly but he always remained successful as a result of Allâh's gift of intellegence and superb memory.

Hâfiz Ahmad ibn `Adî describes: "When the people of Baghdad had learnt that Imâm Bukhârî was due to arrive there, the Muhaddithîn of Baghdad decided to test him by changing the text and chains of transmission of one hundred Ahâdîth. They joined the chain of one Hadîth with the text of another and attached the chain of this Hadîth with the text of the prior. Like this, they mixed up the text and chains of transmission of one hundred Ahâdîth and gave these to people who would test Imâm Bukhârî with these.

"When Imâm Bukhâri arrived at Baghdad, the people held a gathering in his honour, in which most of the Ulamâ, nobles and public were present. One person stood up according to the plan and asked a question regarding a Hadîth with its altered chain of transmission. Upon this, a second person stood up and recited in similar manner. Like this, the people completed the hundred Ahâdîth and awaited Imâm Bukhârî's reply. He said that he had not apprehended those Ahâdîth. When he saw that everyone had finished asking questions, he stood up and described the chain of transmission of the first Hadîth read and then gave its correct chain. Like this, he detailed the faulty chains on the Ahâdîth of all one hundred set up by the scholars. He had given the correct chains of transmission to every Hadîth. When he finished, the entire audience was full of praise and recognition of the superiority and greatness of Imâm Bukhârî."

Hâfiz Abul-Azhar relates: "Once four hundred Muhaddithîn had gathered in the city of Samarqand to test Imâm Bukhârî. They did this by mixing up the transmissions of Syria with the transmissions of Iraq and the transmissions of Iraq with the transmissions of Syria. Similarly, they inserted the transmissions of the Haram (Makkah) into the ones of Yemen and vice versa. They did this to Imâm Bukhâri for seven days, but could not mislead him in text or transmission a single time. He had comprehensive knowledge in the science of Hadîth - all of the routes of a Hadîth were in his eyes if one with many chains was found. So Imâm Bukhârî had a good view of all of them. In that age, no one had more command over the different ways of transmission than Imâm Bukhârî."

Yûsuf ibn Mûsâ Marûzî states: "I was sitting in the central mosque of Basra when I heard a voice saying, 'O seeker of knowledge, Imâm Muhammad ibn Ismâ`îl has arrived. Whoever wants to receive Ahâdîth from him should present himself in his company.'" Marûzî says: "I saw a thin, weak young man near the pillar who was praying salât with extreme humbleness and humility and that was Imâm Bukhârî. As soon as the announcement was made, curious people from all directions began to gather around."

Glimpses of his private life

1. Self sufficiency:

The father of Imâm Bukhârî, Muhaddith Ismâ`îl ibn Ibrâhîm was enormously rich and Imâm Bukhârî had inherited a huge share of his wealth. He used to give his wealth on the basis of silent partnership (e.g. if a person is in possession of a shop, the profits are shared equally, but only one partner does all the work). Abû Sa`îd Bakr ibn Munîr states: "Once Abû Hafs sent some goods to Imâm Bukhârî and when traders learnt of this, they came and offered five thousand dirhams. He told them, 'Come in the evening.' A second group of traders came and offered ten thousand dirhams, but he told them, 'I have already made an agreement with someone else. Ido not want to change my intention for the sake of ten thousand dirhams.'"

2. Simplicity and humbleness:

From the point of view of his character, Imâm Bukhârî was a simple and hard working person. He would fulfill his own needs by himself. Despite having a lot of wealth and status, he always kept the minimum number of servants required and never indulged himself in this matter. Muhammad ibn Hâtim Warrâq, who was one of his main disciples, says: "Imâm Bukhârî was establishing an inn near the city of Bukhara and was placing the bricks with his own hands. I came forward and said 'Leave the laying of the bricks for this building to me.' But he replied, 'On the day of judgement, this act will be of benefit to me.'"

Warrâq goes on to say: "When we accompanied Imâm Bukhârî on a journey, he would gather us in one room and would stay by himself in a separate room. Once I saw Imâm Bukhârî get up between fifteen and twenty times during the night and every time, he lit the lamp with his own hands. He took some Ahâdîth out, marked them and then placed his head on his pillow and laid on his couch. I said to him, 'Why did you go through all this trouble during the night, when you could have woken me up [so that I could help you].' He replied, 'You are young and are in need of sound sleep and I did not want to disturb your sleep.'"

3. Generosity

Just as he was generous with this wealth, he was also greatly generous with his heart. Sometimes, he would give three thousand dirhams as a donation in one day. Warrâq says that Imâm Bukhârî's earnings were five hundred dirhams per month and he would spend all of it on his students.

4. Abstention (Zuhd)

Imâm Bukhârî kept himself away from all worldly desires and temptations. Sometimes, in his quest for knowledge, he passed his time eating dried grass (hay). Usually he would eat only two or three almonds in a whole day. Once he became ill and the doctors told him, "Your intestines have become dry because you have been eating dried leaves." It was at that moment that Imâm Bukhârî told the doctor that he had been eating dried leaves for forty years and during this span of time he never even touched any kind of curry.

5. Fear of Allâh

He was bestowed with the highest rank of piety and righteousness. He feared Allâh very much inwardly and outwardly. He prevented himself from backbiting and suspicion and always respected the rights of others. Bakr ibn Munîr relates that Imâm Bukhârî said, "I am hopeful that when I meet my Lord, He will not take account of me because I never backbited."

Imâm Bukhârî was so vigilant in his worship, that he would pray Nawâfil and keep fasts in abundance. He would complete the recitation of the whole Qur'ân daily in the month of Ramadân and also recited ten chapters of the Holy Qur'ân deep in the night. He would complete the Holy Qur'ân in the Tarâwîh prayers and always reciting twenty verses in each rak`at. He was very courteous, tolerant and gentle. He never became angry if mistreated by other persons and prayed forgiveness for those who attributed evil to him. If he needed to correct any person, he would never embarrass him in public.

His Arrival in Nîshâpûr and the issue of the creation of the Qur'ân

In 250 AH, Imâm Bukhârî decided to go to Nîshâpûr. After hearing this news, a wave of happiness spread among its people. In those times, Muhammad ibn Yahya adh-Dhuhlî was the head of the literary kingdom of Nîshâpûr. He advised and led the inhabitants of the city to gather together for the welcoming of Imâm Bukhârî. A huge crowd went to the outskirts of the city to receive Imâm Bukhârî, with extreme magnificence and honour. Imâm Muslim ibn Hajjâj says that in all his life, he had never seen such a reception ever given to a scholar or even a ruler.

Imâm Bukhârî began to deliver lectures on Hadîth in Nîshâpûr. At every session, a huge crowd always packed the area to listen and many included people who had arrived specifically to learn the science of Hadîth. However, some unpleasant people were envious about the reputation and popularity of Imâm Bukhârî. These people set up Muhammad ibn Yahya adh-Dhuhlî to become his opponent. In this incident, Muhammad ibn Yahya considered the pronunciation of the Qur'ân as eternal and was firmly rooted with this concept.

Once, a man approached Imâm Bukhârî and asked him whether the Qur'ân was created (makhlûq) or not created (ghayr makhlûq). Imâm Bukhârî paused for a while. The man insisted on a reply, upon which he was told, "The Qur'ân are the words of Allâh and they are not created (ghayr makhlûq)." The man posed some more questions about the words of the Qur'ân, upon which Imâm Bukhârî said, "Our actions are created and the pronunciation is one our actions."

[Comment by G.F. Haddad: The above is inaccurately translated. It should read: "Muhammad ibn
Yahya considered the *pronunciation* of the Qur'ân as eternal..." and "Imâm Bukhârî said, 'Our actions are created and the pronunciation is one our actions.'"

The disagreement was only over the pronunciation (lafz) of the Qur'an, not the words of the Qur'an, although lafz also means "wording." Al-Dhuhli and other people close to the Hanbali madhhab considered that the pronunciation is uncreated just like the Qur'an itself. Others, like Bukhari and Muslim, also al-Karabisi the companion of al-Shafi`i and others considered the pronunciation created since it is part of one's acts and acts are certainly created. There was no disagreement that the words of the Qur'an are not created since they are what is meant when we say that the Qur'an is Allah's Speech.

What possibly reconciles the different views on this subject is that lafz is used by some to mean the revealed, uncreated words and contents of recitation, while others mean thereby the mere act of pronunciation, which is created; hence the extreme caution shown by some, such as Imam al-Bukhari, who fell short of saying: "Lafz is created" even though he used it in the second sense, since he said: "Lafz is an act of human beings, and our acts are created." This lexical ambiguity is a proof of sorts that the differences on this particular question were largely in terminology rather than essence. Added to this is a fundamental difference in method around the appropriateness of such dialectic (kalam), which poisoned the air with unnecessary condemnations on the part of Imam Ahmad's followers - and Allah knows best.]

After this, mass propaganda started against Imâm Bukhârî, which led to accusations that he believed the words of the Qur'ân to be created. When Dhuhlî heard these rumours, he disconnected his ties with Imâm Bukhârî and became his foe. He started warning people by announcing that they should not attend the lectures of Imâm Bukhârî. As a result, people refrained from sitting in his lectures, except Muslim ibn Hajjâj. At last, due to his disappointment, Imâm Bukhârî left the city of Nîshâpûr and returned to Bukhara.1

Banishment from his homeland

When the people of Bukhara learnt that Imâm Bukhârî was coming back to his homeland, they became extremely overjoyed and erected tents many miles outside the city to welcome him. They greeted him with splendour for his return. He established a school there where he spent a great deal of time teaching with satisfaction.

Even here, there were envious people who did not leave him alone. They met the governor of Bukhara, who was a representative of the Khilâfat `Abasiyya, Khâlid ibn Ahmad. They told him to call Imâm Bukhârî to his house and busy him with teaching his son. When the governor put this suggestion to Imâm Bukhârî, he was told, "I do not want to abuse knowledge and carry it to the footstep of the rulers. If anybody wants to learn, they should come to my school." The governor replied, by stating, "If my son was to attend your school, he should not sit with ordinary people. You would have to teach him separately." Imâm Bukhârî answered, "I cannot stop any person from hearing Ahâdîth." Upon hearing this, the governer of Bukhara became angry with him and got a fatwa (verdict) from the time wasting opportunist (ibn al-waqt) `Ulamâ against Imâm Bukhârî to banish him from the city.

Imâm Bukhârî was distressed at the thought of being banished from his homeland. Not even a month passed, before the Khalîf of Baghdad dismissed the governor of Bukhara, Khâlid ibn Ahmad adh-Dhuhlî. The governor was expelled from his palace in extreme disgrace and dishonour, being mounted on a she-ass and then thrown into prison, where he died in a space of a few days. Similarly, all the supporters of the governor also died in disgraceful ways.

His passing

After returning from Bukhara, Imâm Bukhârî decided to travel to Samarqand. He was still many miles from the city, when he heard that the people there had two veiws about him. So he decided to stay at a village along the way called "Kharteng". Here, he made the following invocation one night after the late-night prayer: "O Allâh, the Earth despite its grandeur is becoming narrow and is troubling me greatly. So take me back to You." After this invocation, he became ill. Meanwhile, the people of Samarqand sent a messenger to bring him there. Bukhârî got up and was ready to travel, but his strength gave way. He began to invoke Allâh at length, then he took to his bed and his soul passed away to his Lord - may Allâh have mercy on him. An indescribable amount of perspiration came out of him even after he consigned his life to the Creator of life. When this abated, he was shrouded. He died on the night of `Îd al-Fitr, the first night of Shawwâl in the year 256 AH. He had reached the age of 62 years, less twelve days. On this night, the sun of great knowledge, virtue and blessings had set, whose knowledge and actions had enlightened the hearts and minds of the great intellects and people of Samarqand, Bukhara, Baghdad and Nîshâpûr.

His acceptance by Allah's Messenger sallallâhu `alayhi wa sallam

Imâm Bukhârî devoted his entire life, in the search for the way of life given by the Holy Prophet sallallâhu `alayhi wa sallam, in acting upon his sayings and researching into this science. His each and every action was a fragment of the way of the Messenger. Warrâq stated: "In a dream, I once saw Imâm Bukhârî walking behind the Prophet sallallâhu `alayhi wa sallam and his feet would fall exactly where the feet of the blessed Prophet had fallen."

Farbarî stated: "Once in a dream, I met the Holy Prophet sallallâhu `alayhi wa sallam and he asked me, 'Where are you going?' I replied, 'To Muhammad ibn Ismâ`îl [al-Bukhârî].' He then said, 'Go, and give him my salâm.'"

Just as the Holy Prophet sallallâhu `alayhi wa sallam had happiness with Imâm Bukhârî during his lifetime, he was also pleased with him after his death. Concerning this, `Abd al-Wâhid ibn Âdam Awaysî stated: "I saw the Holy Prophet sallallâhu `alayhi wa sallam in my sleep standing with a group of his Companions. I asked, 'O Prophet sallallâhu `alayhi wa sallam, who are you waiting for?' He replied, 'For Bukhârî.' After a few days I heard the news of Imâm Bukhârî's passing away. He had died at the very moment that I saw the Prophet sallallâhu `alayhi wa sallam in my dream."


Imâm Bukhârî was not only a scholar, worshipper, a devotee and a prosperous man, but he always feared Allâh and shone with the love of the Messenger sallallâhu `alayhi wa sallam. The virtuous outpourings he gave to the world during his life are still being given today and as the Muslim Ummah goes about its daily acts of worship, they realise how important the role played by Imâm Bukhârî was. He compiled and circulated the Ahâdîth of the Prophet wherever possible and Allâh spread his status to every corner of the world. It is a fact that as long as the traditions of the Holy Prophet sallallâhu `alayhi wa sallam (qîla and qâla) are mentioned in gatherings, lights and blessings will shower onto the grave of Imâm al-Bukhârî from the skies of the Most Merciful.

Allah knows best


The Six Great Ones from Persia/Iran

In the name of Allah most gracious most merciful
Assalaamu alaykum wa rahmatuallahi wa barakatuhu

The Six Great Ones from Persia/Iran

If Faith were at (the place of) Ath-Thuraiya (pleiades, the highest star) even then Persians would attain it.

Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 6.420 Narrated byAbu Huraira
While we were sitting with the Prophet Surat Al-Jumu'a was revealed to him, and when the Verse, "And He (Allah) has sent him (Muhammad) also to other
(Muslims)..."(62.3) was recited by the Prophet, I said, "Who are they, O Allah's Apostle?" The Prophet did not reply till I repeated my question
thrice. At that time, Salman Al-Farisi was with us. So Allah's Apostle put his hand on Salman, saying, "If Faith were at (the place of) Ath-Thuraiya
(pleiades, the highest star), even then (some men or man from these people (i.e. Salman's folk) would attain it."

62:2 He it is Who hath sent among the unlettered ones a messenger of their own, to recite unto them His revelations and to make them grow, and to teach
them the Scripture and Wisdom, though heretofore they were indeed in error manifest,
3 Along with others of them who have not yet joined them. He is the Mighty,
the Wise.

If you turn back Allah will substitute in your stead another people; then they would not be like you!
Al-Tirmidhi HadithHadith 6244 Narrated byAbuHurayrah
Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) recited this verse, "If you turn back He will substitute other people for you and they will not be like you. The
people asked, "Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), who are these people whom Allah has mentioned will be substituted for us if we turn back and will
not be like us?" He struck Salman al-Farisi on the thigh and said, "This man and his people. If the religion were in the Pleiades men from among the
Persians would attain it." Tirmidhi transmitted it.

47:38 Behold ye are those invited to spend (of your substance) in the way of Allah: but among you are some that are niggardly. But any who are niggardly
are so at the expense of their own souls. But Allah is free of all wants and it is ye that are needy. If ye turn back (from the Path) He will
substitute in your stead another people; then they would not be like you!

*The people of Arabia did’nt turned back as they were chosen first for the message but Persians eventually accepted the obvious truth Al Islam.

Major Hadith collectors were Persians [Iranians]
Hadith is part of the Deen of Islam. Six books of Hadith are considered to be the most authentic by the Sunniites and are called 'Sihah Sitta'.The six
editions come under the following titles:

(1)Sahih Bukhari by Muhammad bin Isma'il
(2) Sahih Muslim by Muslim bin Hajaj
(3) Sunan Abu Dawud by Sulaiman bin Al-Ash'ath:
(4) Jami' at-Tirmidhi by Imam Abu Isa Muhammad
(5) Sunah ibn majah by Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Zaid ibne Maja
(6) Sunan an-Nasai by Imam Abdur Rahman Nisai

Imam Bukhari: He was born in Bukhar (Bukhara in Persia/Iran now its in Central Asia (Uzbekistan) in hijra 256 died in Samarkand.

Imam Muslim: Muslim bin Hajaj belonged to a city in Iran called Nishapur. He was born in hijra 204 and died in hijra 261.

At Tirmidhi: Imam Abu Isa Muhammad Trimzi was from the city called Trimz in Iran. He was born in hijra 209 and died in hijra 279.

Abu Dawood : Sulaiman bin Al-Ash'ath: He comes from Seestan in Iran. He was born in hijra 202 and died in hijra 275.

Ibn Majah: Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Zaid ibne Maja came from northern Iran, a city that goes by the name of Kazdin. His year of birth is hijra 209
and he died in hijra 273.

Imam Nisai: Imam Abdur Rahman Nisai came from a city called Nisa in Iran's eastern province of Khorasan. He died in hijra 303.

Technically Hadith[A brief version]
1.It is any word, deed,of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him.related by his companions anf practiced by themselves as per prophet's injusctions and
forwarded by trustworthy muslims like imam bukhari,muslim,abu dawud tirmidhi etc.
2.the interepretation of verse,
3.explaining the method(characteristics) of salat,eclipse prayer,quranic prostrations,prostrations of forgetfullness in salat(sahu)
4.setting the criteria for zakat,and fitr in ramadhan.
5 rituals of hajj in details from what to wear to what to recite,
6-details of fasting from what invalidates fasting to what validates fasting,forbidden days of fasting,the nawafil fasting,
7-the method of wuzu in detail,
8-method of bathing,
9-azan proclamation method,
10-burial method(funeral and prayer)
11-code of conduct,eating,what kinds of animals are halal.,slaughtering method,aqiqa
12-drinking,(what kind of containers prohibited for preparing beverage of Dates etc )
13-clothes(what kinds of clothes to wear)
14-the scientific exlanations in detail are also not present in Quran.infact to understand this one has to go beyond hadith and look into various
scientic sources.
15-gold is haraam The approval and physical or moral description attributed to the Prophet,whether truly or supposedly even the moves and rests in the awakening or

"Soon will We show them Our Signs in the (furthest) regions (of the earth),and in their own souls, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the truth." (41:53)

Why is Hadith important.

Tt gives quran commentary,it contains prophesies,code of conduct etc,quran requires commentary as a part of explanation,using historic data to prove
dates and events occurrences.it also gives the reason as to when was Quran revealed,as the verse states
5:101 O ye who believe! ask not questions about things which if made plain to you may cause you trouble. But if ye ask about things when the Qur'an is
being revealed they will be made plain to you: Allah will forgive those: for Allah is Oft-Forgiving Most Forbearing.

.... unnecessary questions are prohibited to ask,but asking questions as to when is Quran being revealed it will be made plain to you.Prophet pbuh
himself did not know when and what time Quranic verses were going to be Revealed,this verse speaks of understanding the causes and situatiuons & circumstances,
as to when was Quran revealed related to those cases.(here Quran being revealed means Quranic verses ,as it took 22
years, 5 months and 14 days for the completion even then no matter how many surah's were revealed it was called Quran.But after the completion of Quran
all chapters constitute Quran,and each individual chapter is considered a part of Quran)

Thus hadith gives context to many Quranic Ayats.

Allah knows best.


Women hadith scholars

In the name of Allah most gracious most merciful
Assalaamu alaykum wa rahmatuallahi wa barakatuhu

Women hadith scholars

The following is a list of 30 of the major female hadith scholars from history:

1. ALIYYAH BINT HASAN (d. 2nd cetury AH)

She was the mother of Ismael ibn Ibrahim. She was a slave of Banu (tribe of) Shayban in Basra. Ismael's father was a cloth merchat who would travel to Basra frequently. He married Aliyyah after he manumitted her (set her free from slavery). She was a noble soul, wise and illustrous. Her kowledge of hadith ad fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) caused the nobles of Basra including
Saleh al-Mari to come to her house and discuss with her religious and Islamic law.

Ismael was born to her in 110 AH. Abdul Warith Jawwadi, very know narrator of hadith at that time said, 'one day Aliyyah brought her son to me and said, "This is my son, associate with him so he may be imbued with qualities
like yours"'.

[Reference: Ghuulaman Islam, Khilafat awr Hindustan]

2. AMINAH RAMLYAH (d. 3rd century AH)

Aminah was regarded as one of the learned of the 2nd ad 3rd century hijrah.
She was bor in 162 AH in Ramla, a suburb of Baghdad. She was very intelligent ad had a longing to attain kowledge since early childhood, but as her parents were very poor they could not afford her education. When she was young she accompanied her mother on hajj. In those days an eldery male scholar gave Dars (lectures) at the mosque in Makkah.

She joined his lectures and learned from him the knowledge of the Qur'an and Hadith. After his death, she went to Medina where Imam Malik had laid his rug for seekers of knowledge. Aminah joined his classes and learned hadith from him. Hafiz ibn Abdul Birr said that the number of ahadith reported from
her is around 100.

Afterwards she returned to Makkah and studied fiqh from Imam Shafi Rahimahullah. When she
was aged 36, Imam Shafi Rahimahullah left for Egypt ad she left for Kufa. By the time she reached Kufa word had spread about her knowledge and she began to deliver lectures (Dars) to those seeking kowledge. Her reputation was so great that
Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal Rahimahullah would visit her.

[Reference: Dariah Maaraf Islamia, Mashahir Niswa, Bakamal Muslaman Khawteen]


Qadfah was a lady of excellence during the Muslim rule of Spain under Caliph Hakam Thani (Al-Mustansar). She collected books on various subjects ad created a stockpile of invaluable books on literature, art and other subjects. She was a beautiful reciter of the Qur'an and she always swayed her audiences with eloquent speeches.


Karimah was a world reputed scholar in the 5th century Hijrah. Born in the town or Merv (Iran), she studied theology for many years and learned from the great scholars.
She went to Makkah after havig been qualified to narrate hadith where she began to give lectures (dars). The noted Muhaddith (scholar of hadith) of Spain, Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Sabaq Saqli Rahimullah was a devoted learner from her.
After the Muslim rule of Sicily ended, he went to Makkah where he
learned from her. Afterwhich he went to Spain and made his abode in Granada so that he could narrate hadith.

Ibn Bashkwal said, 'Abu Bakr reported hadith from Karimah and others. He came to Andalus (Islamic Spain) and the people of Granada passionatly learned from him'

Khatib Baghdadi says in Tarikh Baghdad (History of Baghdad) that he, in 463 AH, during the days of haj, heard Sahih of Bukhari from Karimah. Hudreds of seekers of knowledge would be at the lectures (dars) of Karimah. As well as Abu Bakr and Khatib Baghdadi and Talib Zaynabi, many other scholars of that age learned knowledge from her.

[Reference: Khazinat ul Asfia, Tarikh Saqqlya]


Shudah was the daughter of the scholar Abu Nasr Ahmad ibn Umar Al Abri.
Born in the Iranian city of Denvar she too became a scholar and a skilful calligraphist.
She leared from scholars such as Abu Abdullah Hasan ib Ahmad
Nomani, Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ahmad as Shashi, Ahmad ibn Abdul Qadir ibn Yusuf and Abu Al Husayni.

Shudah had such an excellent reputation for teaching hadith that people would come from all over the world to listen to her lectures (dars).
It is said that many scholars of great fame would be perpetual members of her audience when delivering lectures.

Shudah showed such great knowledge of hadith, giving speeches on history, linguistics and literature - such that she became known as 'Fakr un Nisa' (Pride of the women).

The Caliph, Al Muqtadi BiamrAllah granted her a large estate to enhance the scope of her scholarly activities. With these resources she established a school on the banks of the river Tigris where hundreds of students studied.

When she died aged 90, her fueral prayer was held at Jame Al Qasr in Baghdad. Thousands of sorrowful people including the scholars, students ad dignitaries participated in her funeral. Ibn Jawzi, the noted scholar of hadith said, 'Shuhdah was a pious and devoted lady'.

[Reference: Ibn Khallikan, Syed Amir Ali]

6. SAFRI (d. 6th century AH)

Safri the daughter of Qadi Yaqub ibn Sulayman was a distiguished scholar of hadith.
She studied under the guidance of her grandfather and brother and then she herself educated the people for a long time.

[Reference: Mashahir Niswa]


Fatimah the daughter of Ibrahim Mahmud ibn Jawhar was a learned and sagacious person. She had the opportunities to recieve the best education and was taught by the best scholars. After completing her education her fame spread far ad wide.
The great scholars such as Taqiud-Din ibn Abuul-Hasan ad
Shaykh Dhahabi Rahimullah visited her school to learn from her.

[Reference: Mashahir-un-Nisa]


Aisha was a native of Harran born in 647 AH.
From a young age she had wanted to aquire knowledge ad her father sent her to the best scholars to learn.
She achieved excellent knowledge in hadith and fiqh and became known as an authority of knowledge in these subjects. Amongst her students was one of her brothers who completed his study of hadith from her.

[Reference: Mashahir-un-Nisa]


Shirin was a native of India. She was the slave of the renowned scholar Ibn Bandayhi who set her free. She bore a distiguishable place amog the scholars owing to her erudition and digity. She gaied kowledge of hadith from Abdul Monem ibn Kulayb and then begand to teach people in large numbers.
Amongst her students was a man who later became a scholar, Abar Kohi.
In later years people would refer to her as the Shaykh of Abar Kohi.

[Reference: Khilaphat Abbasiah Awr Hindustar, Qadi Athar Mubarakpuri]


Fatimah was nicknamed Umm Abdullah. Her father was an eminent scholar of hadith.
She lived in Damascus and later established her own school.

[Reference: Mashahir-un-Nisa]

11. UMM-UL-KHAYR (d. 640 AH)

Umm-ul-Khayr was born in Baghdad and was know far-and-wide for her vast knowledge of hadith.
She reached such a high level of knowledge that she was given the title Jamal-un-Nisa (Elegance of women).

She gained knowledge from scholars such as Al-Bati, Abu Al Muzaffar, and Shuja Al Harbi. Later she established her own school which inturn generated many more scholars such as Fatimah bi Sulayman, Ibn Shehnah, Ibn Sadah, Ibn Asakir and Taqi-ud-Din Sulayman.

[Reference: Tadhkara-Ul-Khawteen]

12. KHADIJAH BINT AHMAD (d. 9th century AH)

Khadijah was the daughter of Shihab ud-Din. She was taken to the schools of Jawheri and Munsafi who were scholars of that time, when she was aged but two.

She became a great scholar and later established her own school in which she in turn taught scholars such as shaykh Jalal-ul-Din Suyyuti.

[Reference: Mashaheer-i-Niswan]

13. RAJAB (d. 869 AH)

Born in 800 AH, Rajab was a great scholar. Her father made special arrangements for her to learn from the scholars.
She attaied the reputation of wisdom and sagacity before she completed her studies. She was one of the teachers of shaykh Jalaluddin Suyyuti.

14. MARYAM BINT ALI (d. 8th or 9th century AH)

Maryam was nicknamed Umm Hani. She had extensive knowledge having memorised the Qur'an at an early age, as well as the well known book on Nahve (sytax) ad Mukhtasir Abi Shujaa, a noted book of the Shafi jurisprudence.
She was an authority on 'Nahve', Islamic jurisprudence and hadith. She established her own school and one she was one of the teachers of shaykh Jalal-ud-Din Suyyuti.


Zaynab was a native of Jerusalem. She was taught by scholars such as Ibrahim ibn Khalid.
She spent many years teaching Islam and was one of the teachers of the scholar Salah-ud-Din As-Safai.


Habibabah bint Abdur Rehman ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim bin Ahmad ibn Abdur Rehma ibn Ismael ibn Mansur Maqdisi was an amazing scholar.
She studied from scholars such as Al-Baldani ad Khatib Marwan who taught her about Islam, and she also leared about current fields of study from Ibrahim ibn Khalid. She also gained knowledge from Sibt Hafiz Sufi (the Chief scholar of Alexandria), Ibrahim ibn Abi Bakr Al Zaghabi (the Chief scholar of Baghdad)
and Fadlullah ib Abdur Razzaque.

After completing her studies she spent many years teaching Islam. Her memory allowed her to memorise hundreds of hadith with many scholars taking knowledge from her, such as Salah-ud-Di As-Safai, a world renow scholar of his time, where he mentions being taught by her in his book Ayan-ul-Asr Awan-un-Nasr.

[Reference: Mashahir-i-Niswan]

17. ZAYNAB BIT ABDULLAH AL-AZHARI (d. 10th century AH)

Zaynab was famous for having learned hadith, her reputation expanded along the entire Islamic world.
The value of her knowledge is shown when scholars such as Suyyuti attended her lectures (dars) to learn from her.

[Reference: Mashahir-in-Nisa]

18. AISHAH ANDALUSYAH (d. during rule of Muslim Spain)

Aisha went to Andalus (Muslim Spain) when the Muslim rule was at it's climax. Her memory was such that she memorised over ten thousand hadith including all of the narrators from the time of the Prophet to the present date.

[Reference: Nakhf-ut-Tayyab]

19. SATT-UL-FUQAHA (d. 8th cetury AH)

Satt was a scholar of hadith who had no equal in piety, continence and excellence of conduct in her time.
She gained knowledge from scholars such as Jafar Hamadani Ahmad Harrai, Abdur Rehman ibn Sulayman and Abdul Latif ibn
Qibti. Besides hadith she mastered Islamic urisprudence.
She established her own school and taught thousands.

[Reference: Mashahir-un-Nisa]

20. HANIFAH (d. 9th century AH)

She was the daughter of Abdur Rehman ibn Ahmed ibn Umar ibn Al-Qimni.
She was considered one of the world known scholars of the 9th century. She learned hadith from Kamal ibn Khayr, the Chief Scholar in her time period.
She established a school and taught thousands. Many scholars of the calibre of shaykh Jalal-ud-Din Suyyuti considered her as their guides and advisors.

Allah knows best