In the name of Allah most gracious most merciful
Assalaamu alaykum wa rahmatuallahi wa barakatahu
23:97 And say: "O my Lord! I seek refuge with Thee from the suggestions of the Evil Ones;
The below verses were revealed first.
96:Yusuf Ali Proclaim! (or Read!) in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher Who created
Pickthall Read: In the name of thy Lord who createth
So “bismilla “ with “hir rahman nir rahim “ was included & recited before every Surah except one Surah Taubah.
27:30 "It is from Solomon and is (as follows): `In the name of Allah Most Gracious Most Merciful:
So out of 114 Suran’s present in Quran only one Surah does’nt begins with Bismillah,its Surah Taubah 9.In this Surah ,Allah subhanawatala is angry with the pagans (followers of polythestic religion/one who has little or no religion) & his anger is expressed in the absence of “Bismillah “
Allah subhanawatala gave then three options in foutr months duration of time.
1.Either be ready to be killed by muslims because they broke the[ 9.5]
2. They should accept faith [ 9.11]
3.Order is given to pagans to vacate the holy place & not to visit it ever aftrer [9.28]
As Allah subhanawatala destroyed the people of previous times who rejected their prophets ,in the same way these pagans were given the warning for punishment.
Surah Taubah Introduction
Discourses and Periods of Revelation
This Surah comprises three discourses. The first discourse (vv. 1-37), was revealed in Zil-Qa'adah A.H. 9 or thereabout. As the importance of the subject of the discourse required its declaration on the occasion of Hajj the Holy Prophet despatched Hadrat Ali to follow Hadrat Abu Bakr, who had already left for Makkah as leader of the Pilgrims to the Ka'abah. He instructed Hadrat Ali to deliver the discourse before the representatives of the different clans of Arabia so as to inform them of the new policy towards the mushriks.
The second discourse (v., 38-72) was sent down in Rajab A.H. 9 or a little before this, when the Holy Prophet was engaged in making preparations for the Campaign of Tabuk. In this discourse, the Believers were urged to take active part in jihad, and the shirkers were severely rebuked for holding back their wealth and for hesitation to sacrifice their lives in the way of Allah because of their hypocrisy, weak faith or negligence.
The third discourse (v. 73-I 29) was revealed on his return from the Campaign of Tabuk. There are some pieces in this discourse that were sent down on different occasions during the same period and were afterwards consolidated by the Holy Prophet into the Surah in accordance with inspiration from Allah. But this caused no interruption in its continuity because they dealt with the same subject and formed part of the same series of events. This discourse warns the hypocrites of their evil deeds and rebukes those Believers who had stayed behind in the Campaign of Tabuk. Then after taking them to task, Allah pardons those true Believers who had not taken part in the Jihad in the Way of Allah for one reason or the other. Chronologically, the first discourse should have come last; but being the most important of the three in regard to its subject-matter, it was placed first in the order of compilation.
Conquest of Arabia
The first was the Conquest of Arabia. The Holy Prophet was able to send missions among different clans for the propagation of Islam. The result was that during the short period of two years, it became such a great power that it made the old order of ignorance feel helpless before it. So much so that the zealous elements from among the Quraish were so exasperated that they broke the Treaty in order to encounter Islam in a decisive combat. But the Holy Prophet took prompt action after the breach so as not to allow them any opportunity to gather enough force for this. He made a sudden invasion on Makkah in the month of Ramadan in A H. 8 and conquered it. Though this conquest broke the backbone of the order of ignorance, it made still another attack on Islam in the battlefield of Hunain, which proved to be its death-knell. The clans of Hawazin Thaqif, Naur, Jushm and others gathered their entire forces in the battlefield in order to crush the reformative Revolution, but they utterly failed in their evil designs. The defeat of 'ignorance' at Hunain paved the way for making the whole of Arabia the 'Abode of Islam' (Dar-ul-Islam). The result was that hardly a year had passed after the Battle of Hunain, when the major portion of Arabia came within the fold of Islam and only a few upholders of the old order remained scattered over some corners of the country.
The second event that contributed towards making Islam a formidable power was the Campaign of Tabuk, which was necessitated by the provocative activities of the Christians living within or near the boundaries of the Roman Empire to the north of Arabia. Accordingly, the Holy Prophet, with an army of thirty thousand marched boldly towards the Roman Empire but the Romans evaded the encounter. The result was that the power of the Holy Prophet and Islam increased manifold and deputations from all corners of Arabia began to wait upon him on his return from Tabuk in order to offer their allegiance to Islam and obedience to him. The Holy Quran has described this triumph in Surah An-Nisa: "When the succour of Allah came and victory was attained and you saw people entering the fold of Islam in large numbers...
9:Yusuf Ali 1: A (declaration) of immunity from Allah and His apostle to those of the pagans with whom ye have contracted mutual alliances.
Pickthall Freedom from obligation (is proclaimed) from Allah and His messenger toward those of the idolaters with whom ye made a treaty:
*Note:[Pagans broke the treaty so this was revealed]
2 Go ye then for four months backwards and forwards (as ye will) throughout the land but know ye that ye cannot frustrate Allah (by your falsehood) but that Allah will cover with shame those who reject him.[*Note:Four months time is given to them]
3 And an announcement from Allah and His apostle to the people (assembled) on the day of the Great Pilgrimage that Allah and His apostle dissolve (treaty) obligations with the pagans. If then ye repent it were best for you; but if ye turn away know ye that ye cannot frustrate Allah. And proclaim a grievous penalty to those who reject faith.*[Note:Chance for repentence is given to them]
4 (But the treaties are) not dissolved with those pagans with whom Ye have entered into alliance and who have not subsequently failed you in aught nor aided anyone against you. So fulfil your engagements with them to the end of their term: for Allah loveth the righteous.
5 But when the forbidden months are past then fight and slay the pagans wherever ye find them and seize them beleaguer them and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war); but if they repent and establish regular prayers and practice regular charity then open the way for them: for Allah is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful. *Note:[Slay because they broke the treaty or they should accept faith]
6 If one amongst the pagans ask thee for asylum grant it to him so that he may hear the word of Allah and then escort him to where he can be secure: that is because they are men without knowledge.
*Note:[Chance given to understand Faith]
9:11 But (even so) if they repent establish regular prayers and practice regular charity they are your brethren in faith: (thus) do We explain signs in detail for those who understand.
*Note:[Forgiveness to those who accept Faith]
9:17 It is not for such as join gods with Allah to visit or maintain the mosques of Allah while they witness against their own souls to infidelity. The works of such bear no fruit: in fire shall they dwell.
18 The mosques of Allah shall be visited and maintained by such as believe in Allah and the Last Day establish regular prayers and practice regular charity and fear none (at all) except Allah. It is they who are expected to be on true guidance.
*Note: [The right to maintain mosques given believers]
9;28 O ye who believe! truly the pagans are unclean; so let them not after this year of theirs approach the Sacred Mosque. And if ye fear poverty soon will Allah enrich you if He wills out of his bounty for Allah is All-Knowing All-Wise. [Order is given to the pagans to vacate the Holy place & not to visit it everafter.
29 Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His apostle nor acknowledge the religion of truth (even if they are) of the People of the Book until they pay the Jizya with willing submission and feel themselves subdued.
9:27 Again will Allah after this turn (in mercy) to whom He will: for Allah is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful.
Allah knows best.