In The Name Of Allah Most Gracious Most Merciful
Assalaamu Alaykum Wa Rahmatuallahi wa barakatuhu
Rights Of Muslim
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 1.387 Narrated byAnas bin Malik
Allah's Apostle said, "I have been ordered to fight the people till they say: 'None has the right to be worshipped but Allah.' And if they say so, pray like our prayers, face our Qibla and slaughter as we slaughter, then their blood and property will be sacred to us and we will not interfere with them except legally and their reckoning will be with Allah." Narrated Maimun ibn Siyah that he asked Anas bin Malik, "O Abu Hamza! What makes the life and property of a person sacred?" He replied, "Whoever says, 'None has the right to be worshipped but Allah', faces our Qibla during the prayers, prays like us and eats our slaughtered animal, then he is a Muslim, and has got the same rights and obligations as other Muslims have."
Grades For Mujahidin
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.48 Narrated byAbu Huraira
The Prophet said, "Whoever believes in Allah and His Apostle, offers prayer perfectly and fasts the month of Ramadan, will rightfully be granted Paradise by Allah, no matter whether he fights in Allah's cause or remains in the land where he is born." The people said, "O Allah's Apostle! Shall we acquaint the people with this good news?" He said, "Paradise has one-hundred grades which Allah has reserved for the mujahidin who fight in His cause, and the distance between each of two grades is like the distance between the Heaven and the earth. So, when you ask Allah (for something), ask for Al-Firdaus which is the best and highest part of Paradise." (i.e., The sub-narrator added, "I think the Prophet also said, 'Above it (i.e. Al-Firdaus) is the Throne of Beneficent (i.e. Allah), and from it originate the rivers of Paradise.")
A Commander Of The Muslims
Sahih Muslim HadithHadith 4542 Narrated byAbuHurayrah
The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) said: A commander (of the Muslims) is a shield for them. They fight behind him and they are protected by (him from tyrants and aggressors). If he enjoins fear of God, the Exalted and Glorious, and dispenses justice, there will be a (great) reward for him; and if he enjoins otherwise, it redounds on him.
Jihad Will Be Performed Continuously
Sunan of Abu-DawoodHadith 2526 Narrated byAnas ibn Malik
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Three things are the roots of faith: to refrain from (killing) a person who utters, "There is no god but Allah" and not to declare him unbeliever whatever sin he commits, and not to excommunicate him from Islam for his any action; and jihad will be performed continuously since the day Allah sent me as a prophet until the day the last member of my community will fight with the Dajjal (Antichrist). The tyranny of any tyrant and the justice of any just (ruler) will not invalidate it. One must have faith in Divine decree.
Jihad By Prophet Muhammad salla lahu alaihi wa sallam
Sunan of Abu-DawoodHadith 2998 Narrated byA man from the companions of the Prophet
AbdurRahman ibn Ka'b ibn Malik reported on the authority of a man from among the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him): The infidels of the Quraysh wrote (a letter) to Ibn Ubayy and to those who worshipped idols from al-Aws and al-Khazraj, while the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) was at that time at Medina before the battle of Badr. (They wrote): You gave protection to our companion. We swear by Allah, you should fight him or expel him, or we shall come to you in full force, until we kill your fighters and appropriate your women. When this (news) reached Abdullah ibn Ubayy and those who were worshippers of idols, with him they gathered together to fight the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him). When this news reached the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him), he visited them and said: The threat of the Quraysh to you has reached its end. They cannot contrive a plot against you, greater than what you yourselves intended to harm you. Are you willing to fight your sons and brethren? When they heard this from the Prophet (peace be upon him), they scattered. This reached the infidels of the Quraysh. The infidels of the Quraysh again wrote (a letter) to the Jews after the battle of Badr: You are men of weapons and fortresses. You should fight our companion or we shall deal with you in a certain way. And nothing will come between us and the anklets of your women. When their letter reached the Prophet (peace be upon him), they gathered Banu an-Nadir to violate the treaty. They sent a message to the Prophet (peace be upon him): Come out to us with thirty men from your companions, and thirty rabbis will come out from us till we meet at a central place where they will hear you. If they testify to you and believe in you, we shall believe in you. The narrator then narrated the whole story. When the next day came, the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) went out in the morning with an army, and surrounded them. He told them: I swear by Allah, you will have no peace from me until you conclude a treaty with me. But they refused to conclude a treaty with him. He therefore fought them the same day. Next he attacked Banu Quraysh with an army in the morning, and left Banu an-Nadir. He asked them to sign a treaty and they signed it. He turned away from them and attacked Banu an-Nadir with an army. He fought with them until they agreed to expulsion. Banu an-Nadir were deported, and they took with them whatever their camels could carry, that is, their property, the doors of their houses, and their wood. Palm-trees were exclusively reserved for the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him). Allah bestowed them upon him and gave them him as a special portion. He (Allah), the Exalted, said: What Allah has bestowed on His Apostle (and taken away) from them, for this ye made no expedition with either camel corps or cavalry." He said: "Without fighting." So the Prophet (peace be upon him) gave most of it to the emigrants and divided it among them; and he divided some of it between two men from the helpers, who were needy, and he did not divide it among any of the helpers except those two. The rest of it survived as the sadaqah of the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) which is in the hands of the descendants of Fatimah (Allah be pleased with her).
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.216 Narra Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 5.747 Narrated byAbu Ishaq
I asked Zaid bin Al-Arqam, "In how many Ghazawat did you take part in the company of Allah's Apostle?" He replied, "Seventeen." I further asked, "How many Ghazawat did the Prophet fight?" He replied, "Nineteen."
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 3.891 Narrated byAl Miswar bin Makhrama and Marwan
(whose narrations attest each other) Allah's Apostle set out at the time of Al-Hudaibiya (treaty), and when they proceeded for a distance, he said, "Khalid bin Al-Walid leading the cavalry of Quraish constituting the front of the army, is at a place called Al-Ghamim, so take the way on the right." By Allah, Khalid did not perceive the arrival of the Muslims till the dust arising from the march of the Muslim army reached him, and then he turned back hurriedly to inform Quraish. The Prophet went on advancing till he reached the Thaniya (i.e. a mountainous way) through which one would go to them (i.e. people of Quraish). The she-camel of the Prophet sat down. The people tried their best to cause the she-camel to get up but in vain, so they said, "Al-Qaswa' (i.e. the she-camel's name) has become stubborn! Al-Qaswa' has become stubborn!" The Prophet said, "Al-Qaswa' has not become stubborn, for stubbornness is not her habit, but she was stopped by Him Who stopped the elephant." Then he said, "By the Name of Him in Whose Hands my soul is, if they (i.e. the Quraish infidels) ask me anything which will respect the ordinances of Allah, I will grant it to them."
The Prophet then rebuked the she-camel and she got up. The Prophet changed his way till he dismounted at the farthest end of Al-Hudaibiya at a pit (i.e. well) containing a little water which the people used in small amounts, and in a short while the people used up all its water and complained to Allah's Apostle of thirst. The Prophet took an arrow out of his arrow-case and ordered them to put the arrow in that pit. By Allah, the water started and continued sprouting out till all the people quenched their thirst and returned with satisfaction. While they were still in that state, Budail bin Warqa-al-Khuza'i came with some persons from his tribe Khuza'a and they were the advisers of Allah's Apostle who would keep no secret from him and were from the people of Tihama. Budail said, "I left Kab bin Luai and 'Amir bin Luai residing at the profuse water of Al-Hudaibiya and they had milch camels (or their women and children) with them, and will wage war against you, and will prevent you from visiting the Kaba." Allah's Apostle said, "We have not come to fight anyone, but to perform the 'Umra. No doubt, the war has weakened Quraish and they have suffered great losses, so if they wish, I will conclude a truce with them, during which they should refrain from interfering between me and the people (i.e. the 'Arab infidels other than Quraish), and if I have victory over those infidels, Quraish will have the option to embrace Islam as the other people do, if they wish; they will at least get strong enough to fight. But if they do not accept the truce, by Allah in Whose Hands my life is, I will fight with them defending my cause till I get killed, but (I am sure) Allah will definitely make His cause victorious." Budail said, "I will inform them of what you have said." So, he set off till he reached Quraish and said, "We have come from that man (i.e. Muhammad) whom we heard saying something which we will disclose to you if you should like." Some of the fools among Quraish shouted that they were not in need of this information, but the wiser among them said, "Relate what you heard him saying." Budail said, "I heard him saying so-and-so," relating what the Prophet had told him.
Urwa bin Mas'ud got up and said, "O people! Aren't you the sons? They said, "Yes." He added, "Am I not the father?" They said, "Yes." He said, "Do you mistrust me?" They said, "No." He said, "Don't you know that I invited the people of 'Ukaz for your help, and when they refused I brought my relatives and children and those who obeyed me (to help you)?" They said, "Yes." He said, "Well, this man (i.e. the Prophet) has offered you a reasonable proposal, you'd better accept it and allow me to meet him." They said, "You may meet him." So, he went to the Prophet and started talking to him. The Prophet told him almost the same as he had told Budail. Then Urwa said, "O Muhammad! Won't you feel any scruple in extirpating your relations? Have you ever heard of anyone amongst the Arabs extirpating his relatives before you? On the other hand, if the reverse should happen, (nobody will aid you, for) by Allah, I do not see (with you) dignified people, but people from various tribes who would run away leaving you alone." Hearing that, Abu Bakr abused him and said, "Do you say we would run and leave the Prophet alone?" Urwa said, "Who is that man?" They said, "He is Abu Bakr." Urwa said to Abu Bakr, "By Him in Whose Hands my life is, were it not for the favor which you did to me and which I did not compensate, I would retort on you." Urwa kept on talking to the Prophet and seizing the Prophet's beard as he was talking while Al-Mughira bin Shu'ba was standing near the head of the Prophet, holding a sword and wearing a helmet. Whenever Urwa stretched his hand towards the beard of the Prophet, Al-Mughira would hit his hand with the handle of the sword and say (to Urwa), "Remove your hand from the beard of Allah's Apostle." Urwa raised his head and asked, "Who is that?" The people said, "He is Al-Mughira bin Shu'ba." Urwa said, "O treacherous! Am I not doing my best to prevent evil consequences of your treachery?"
Before embracing Islam Al-Mughira was in the company of some people. He killed them and took their property and came (to Medina) to embrace Islam. The Prophet said (to him, "As regards your Islam, I accept it, but as for the property I do not take anything of it. (As it was taken through treason). Urwa then started looking at the Companions of the Prophet. By Allah, whenever Allah's Apostle spat, the spittle would fall in the hand of one of them (i.e. the Prophet's companions) who would rub it on his face and skin; if he ordered them they would carry his orders immediately; if he performed ablution, they would struggle to take the remaining water; and when they spoke to him, they would lower their voices and would not look at his face constantly out of respect. Urwa returned to his people and said, "O people! By Allah, I have been to the kings and to Caesar, Khosrau and An-Najashi, yet I have never seen any of them respected by his courtiers as much as Muhammad is respected by his companions. By Allah, if he spat, the spittle would fall in the hand of one of them (i.e. the Prophet's companions) who would rub it on his face and skin; if he ordered them, they would carry out his order immediately; if he performed ablution, they would struggle to take the remaining water; and when they spoke, they would lower their voices and would not look at his face constantly out of respect." Urwa added, "No doubt, he has presented to you a good reasonable offer, so please accept it." A man from the tribe of Bani Kinana said, "Allow me to go to him," and they allowed him, and when he approached the Prophet and his companions, Allah's Apostle said, "He is so-and-so who belongs to the tribe that respects the Budn (i.e. camels of the sacrifice). So, bring the Budn in front of him." So, the Budn were brought before him and the people received him while they were reciting Talbiya. When he saw that scene, he said, "Glorified be Allah! It is not fair to prevent these people from visiting the Ka'ba." When he returned to his people, he said, "I saw the Budn garlanded (with colored knotted ropes) and marked (with stabs on their backs). I do not think it is advisable to prevent them from visiting the Ka'ba." Another person called Mikraz bin Hafs got up and sought their permission to go to Muhammad, and they allowed him, too. When he approached the Muslims, the Prophet said, "Here is Mikraz and he is a vicious man." Mikraz started talking to the Prophet and as he was talking, Suhail bin Amr came.
When Suhail bin Amr came, the Prophet said, "Now the matter has become easy." Suhail said to the Prophet "Please conclude a peace treaty with us." So, the Prophet called the clerk and said to him, "Write: By the Name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful." Suhail said, "As for 'Beneficent,' by Allah, I do not know what it means. So write: By Your Name O Allah, as you used to write previously." The Muslims said, "By Allah, we will not write except: By the Name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful." The Prophet said, "Write: By Your Name O Allah." Then he dictated, "This is the peace treaty which Muhammad, Allah's Apostle has concluded." Suhail said, "By Allah, if we knew that you are Allah's Apostle we would not prevent you from visiting the Kaba, and would not fight with you. So, write: "Muhammad bin Abdullah." The Prophet said, "By Allah! I am Apostle of Allah even if you people do not believe me. Write: Muhammad bin Abdullah." (Az-Zuhri said, "The Prophet accepted all those things, as he had already said that he would accept everything they would demand if it respects the ordinance of Allah, (i.e. by letting him and his companions perform 'Umra.)" The Prophet said to Suhail, "On the condition that you allow us to visit the House (i.e. Ka'ba) so that we may perform Tawaf around it." Suhail said, "By Allah, we will not (allow you this year) so as not to give chance to the 'Arabs to say that we have yielded to you, but we will allow you next year." So, the Prophet got that written.
Then Suhail said, "We also stipulate that you should return to us whoever comes to you from us, even if he embraced your religion." The Muslims said, "Glorified be Allah! How will such a person be returned to the pagans after he has become a Muslim? While they were in this state Abu-Jandal bin Suhail bin 'Amr came from the valley of Mecca staggering with his fetters and fell down amongst the Muslims. Suhail said, "O Muhammad! This is the very first term with which we make peace with you, i.e. you shall return Abu Jandal to me." The Prophet said, "The peace treaty has not been written yet." Suhail said, "I will never allow you to keep him." The Prophet said, "Yes, do." He said, "I won't do." Mikraz said, "We allow you (to keep him)." Abu Jandal said, "O Muslims! Will I be returned to the pagans though I have come as a Muslim? Don't you see how much I have suffered?"
Abu Jandal had been tortured severely for the cause of Allah. Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "I went to the Prophet and said, 'Aren't you truly the Apostle of Allah?' The Prophet said, 'Yes, indeed.' I said, 'Isn't our cause just and the cause of the enemy unjust?' He said, 'Yes.' I said, 'Then why should we be humble in our religion?' He said, 'I am Allah's Apostle and I do not disobey Him, and He will make me victorious.' I said, 'Didn't you tell us that we would go to the Ka'ba and perform Tawaf around it?' He said, 'Yes, but did I tell you that we would visit the Ka'ba this year?' I said, 'No.' He said, 'So you will visit it and perform Tawaf around it?' " Umar further said, "I went to Abu Bakr and said, 'O Abu Bakr! Isn't he truly Allah's Prophet?' He replied, 'Yes.' I said, 'Then why should we be humble in our religion?' He said, 'Indeed, he is Allah's Apostle and he does not disobey his Lord, and He will make him victorious. Adhere to him as, by Allah, he is on the right.' I said, 'Was he not telling us that we would go to the Kaba and perform Tawaf around it?' He said, 'Yes, but did he tell you that you would go to the Ka'ba this year?' I said, 'No.' He said, "You will go to Ka'ba and perform Tawaf around it." (Az-Zuhri said, " 'Umar said, 'I performed many good deeds as expiation for the improper questions I asked them.' ")
When the writing of the peace treaty was concluded, Allah's Apostle said to his companions, "Get up and slaughter your sacrifices and get your head shaved." By Allah none of them got up, and the Prophet repeated his order thrice. When none of them got up, he left them and went to Um Salama and told her of the people's attitudes towards him. Um Salama said, "O the Prophet of Allah! Do you want your order to be carried out? Go out and don't say a word to anybody till you have slaughtered your sacrifice and call your barber to shave your head." So, the Prophet went out and did not talk to anyone of them till he did that, i.e. slaughtered the sacrifice and called his barber who shaved his head. Seeing that, the companions of the Prophet got up, slaughtered their sacrifices, and started shaving the heads of one another, and there was so much rush that there was a danger of killing each other. Then some believing women came (to the Prophet ); and Allah revealed the following Divine verses:--
"O you who believe, when the believing women come to you as emigrants examine them . . ." (60.10)
'Umar then divorced two wives of his who were infidels. Later on Muawiya bin Abu Sufyan married one of them, and Safwan bin Umaya married the other. When the Prophet returned to Medina, Abu Basir, a new Muslim convert from Quraish came to him. The infidels sent in his pursuit two men who said (to the Prophet ), "Abide by the promise you gave us." So, the Prophet handed him over to them. They took him out (of the City) till they reached Dhul-Hulaifa where they dismounted to eat some dates they had with them. Abu Basir said to one of them, "By Allah, O so-and-so, I see you have a fine sword." The other drew it out (of the scabbard) and said, "By Allah, it is very fine and I have tried it many times." Abu Basir said, "Let me have a look at it."
When the other gave it to him, he hit him with it till he died, and his companion ran away till he came to Medina and entered the mosque running. When Allah's Apostle saw him he said, "This man appears to have been frightened." When he reached the Prophet he said, "My companion has been murdered and I would have been murdered too." Abu Basir came and said, "O Allah's Apostle, by Allah, Allah has made you fulfill your obligations by your returning me to them (i.e. the infidels), but Allah has saved me from them." The Prophet said, "Woe to his mother! what excellent war kindler he would be, should he only have supporters." When Abu Basir heard that he understood that the Prophet would return him to them again, so he set off till he reached the seashore. Abu Jandal bin Suhail got himself released from them (i.e. infidels) and joined Abu Basir. So, whenever a man from Quraish embraced Islam he would follow Abu Basir till they formed a strong group. By Allah, whenever they heard about a caravan of Quraish heading towards Sham, they stopped it and attacked and killed them (i.e. infidels) and took their properties. The people of Quraish sent a message to the Prophet requesting him for the sake of Allah and kth and kin to send for (i.e. Abu Basir and his companions) promising that whoever (amongst them) came to the Prophet would be secure. So the Prophet sent for them (i.e. Abu Basir's companions) and Allah I revealed the following Divine verses:
"And it is He Who Has withheld their hands from you and your hands From them in the midst of Mecca, After He made you the victorious over them. . . . the unbelievers had pride and haughtiness, in their hearts . . . the pride and haughtiness of the time of ignorance." (48.24-26) And their pride and haughtiness was that they did not confess (write in the treaty) that he (i.e. Muhammad) was the Prophet of Allah and refused to write: "In the Name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the Most Merciful," and prevented the Mushriks from visiting the Ka'ba.
Narrated Az-Zuhri: Urwa said, " 'Aisha told me that Allah's Apostle used to examine the women emigrants. We have been told also that when Allah revealed the order that the Muslims should return to the pagans what they had spent on their wives who emigrated (after embracing Islam) and that the Mushriks should not keep unbelieving women as their wives, 'Umar divorced two of his wives, Qariba, the daughter of Abu Urhaiya and the daughter of Jarwal Al-Khuza'i. Later on Mu'awiya married Qariba and Abu Jahm married the other."
When the pagans refused to pay what the Muslims had spent on their wives, Allah revealed: "And if any of your wives have gone from you to the unbelievers and you have an accession (by the coming over of a woman from the other side) (then pay to those whose wives have gone) the equivalent of what they had spent (on their mahr)." (60.11)
So, Allah ordered that the Muslim whose wife has gone, should be given, as a compensation of the mahr he had given to his wife, from the mahr of the wives of the pagans who had emigrated deserting their husbands.
We do not know any of the women emigrants who deserted Islam after embracing it. We have also been told that Abu Basir bin Asid Ath-Thaqafi came to the Prophet as a Muslim emigrant during the truce. Al-Akhnas bin Shariq wrote to the Prophet requesting him to return Abu Basir.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 5.495 Narrated byAl Miswar bin Makhrama and Marwan bin Al Hakam
(one of them said more than his friend): The Prophet set out in the company of more than one-thousand of his companions in the year of Al-Hudaibiya, and when he reached Dhul-Hulaifa, he garlanded his Hadi (i.e. sacrificing animal), assumed the state of Ihram for 'Umra from that place and sent a spy of his from Khuzi'a (tribe). The Prophet proceeded on till he reached (a village called) Ghadir-al-Ashtat. There his spy came and said, "The Quraish (infidels) have collected a great number of people against you, and they have collected against you the Ethiopians, and they will fight with you, and will stop you from entering the Ka'ba and prevent you." The Prophet said, "O people! Give me your opinion. Do you recommend that I should destroy the families and offspring of those who want to stop us from the Ka'ba? If they should come to us (for peace) then Allah will destroy a spy from the pagans, or otherwise we will leave them in a miserable state." On that Abu Bakr said, "O Allah's Apostle! You have come with the intention of visiting this House (i.e. Ka'ba) and you do not want to kill or fight anybody. So proceed to it, and whoever should stop us from it, we will fight him." On that the Prophet said, "Proceed on, in the Name of Allah!"
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.406 Narrated byAbu Wail
We were in Siffin and Sahl bin Hunaif got up and said, "O people! Blame yourselves! We were with the Prophet on the day of Hudaibiya, and if we had been called to fight, we would have fought. But 'Umar bin Al Khatab came and said, 'O Allah's Apostle! Aren't we in the right and our opponents in the wrongs' Allah's Apostle said, 'Yes.' 'Umar said, 'Aren't our killed persons in Paradise and theirs in Hell?' He said, 'Yes.' 'Umar said, 'Then why should we accept hard terms in matters concerning our religion? Shall we return before Allah judges between us and them?' Allah's Apostle said, 'O Ibn Al-Khattab! I am the Apostle of Allah and Allah will never degrade me.' Then 'Umar went to Abu Bakr and told him the same as he had told the Prophet.
On that Abu Bakr said (to 'Umar). 'He is the Apostle of Allah and Allah will never degrade him.' Then Surat-al-Fath (i.e. Victory) was revealed and Allah's Apostle recited it to the end in front of 'Umar. On that 'Umar asked, 'O Allah's Apostle! Was it (i.e. the Hudaibiya Treaty) a victory?' Allah's Apostle said, 'Yes' ".
Laws Of Jihad
Sahih Muslim HadithHadith 4294 Narrated byBurayd
When the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) appointed anyone as leader of an army or detachment he would especially exhort him to fear Allah and to be good to the Muslims who were with him. He would say: Fight in the name of Allah and in the cause of Allah. Fight against those who do not believe in Allah. Wage a holy war: do not embezzle the spoils, do not break your pledge, do not mutilate (the dead) bodies and do not kill the children. When you meet enemies who are polytheists, invite them to three courses of action. If they respond to any one of these, you also accept it and restrain yourself from doing them any harm. Invite them to (accept) Islam; if they respond to you, accept it from them and desist from fighting against them. Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of Muhajirs and inform them that, if they do so, they shall have all the privileges and obligations of the Muhajirs. If they refuse to migrate, tell them that they will have the status of Bedouin Muslims and will be subjected to the Commands of Allah like other Muslims, but they will not receive any share from the spoils of war or Fay' except when they actually fight with the Muslims (against the nonbelievers). If they refuse to accept Islam, demand from them the Jizyah. If they agree to pay, accept it from them and hold your hand. If they refuse to pay the tax, seek Allah's help and fight them. When you lay siege to a fort and the besieged appeal to you for protection in the name of Allah and His Prophet, do not accord to them the guarantee of Allah and His Prophet, but accord to them your own guarantee and the guarantee of your companions. It is a lesser sin that the security given by you or your companions be disregarded than that the security granted in the name of Allah and His Prophet be violated. When you besiege a fort and the besieged want you to let them out in accordance with Allah's Command, do not let them come out in accordance with His Command, but do so at your (own) command, for you do not know whether or not you will be able to carry out Allah's behest with regard to them.
Rights Of Those Who Have Treaty
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 7.210 Narrated byIbn Abbas
The pagans were of two kinds as regards their relationship to the Prophet and the Believers. Some of them were those with whom the Prophet was at war and used to fight against, and they used to fight him; the others were those with whom the Prophet made a treaty, and neither did the Prophet fight them, nor did they fight him. If a lady from the first group of pagans emigrated towards the Muslims, her hand would not be asked in marriage unless she got the menses and then became clean. When she became clean, it would be lawful for her to get married, and if her husband emigrated too before she got married, then she would be returned to him. If any slave or female slave emigrated from them to the Muslims, then they would be considered free persons (not slaves) and they would have the same rights as given to other emigrants. The narrator then mentioned about the pagans involved with the Muslims in a treaty, the same as occurs in Mujahid's narration. If a male slave or a female slave emigrated from such pagans as had made a treaty with the Muslims, they would not be returned, but their prices would be paid (to the pagans). Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: Qariba, the daughter of Abi Umaiyya, was the wife of 'Umar bin Al-Khattab. 'Umar divorced her and then Mu'awiyya bin Abi Sufyan married her. Similarly, Um Al-Hakam, the daughter of Abi Sufyan was the wife of 'Iyad bin Ghanm Al-Fihri. He divorced her and then 'Abdullah bin 'Uthman Al-Thaqafi married her.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 3.862 Narrated byAl Bara bin Azib
When Allah's Apostle concluded a peace treaty with the people of Hudaibiya, Ali bin Abu Talib wrote the document and he mentioned in it, "Muhammad, Allah's Apostle." The pagans said, "Don't write: 'Muhammad, Allah's Apostle', for if you were an apostle we would not fight with you." Allah's Apostle asked Ali to rub it out, but Ali said, "I will not be the person to rub it out." Allah's Apostle rubbed it out and made peace with them on the condition that the Prophet and his companions would enter Mecca and stay there for three days, and that they would enter with their weapons in cases.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 1.367 Narrated byAbdul Aziz
Anas said, 'When Allah's Apostle invaded Khaibar, we offered the Fajr prayer there (early in the morning) when it was still dark. The Prophet rode and Abu Talha rode too and I was riding behind Abu Talha. The Prophet passed through the lane of Khaibar quickly and my knee was touching the thigh of the Prophet . He uncovered his thigh and I saw the whiteness of the thigh of the Prophet. When he entered the town, he said, 'Allahu Akbar! Khaibar is ruined. Whenever we approach near a (hostile) nation (to fight) then evil will be the morning of those who have been warned.' He repeated this thrice. The people came out for their jobs and some of them said, 'Muhammad (has come).' (Some of our companions added, "With his army.") We conquered Khaibar, took the captives, and the booty was collected. Dihya came and said, 'O Allah's Prophet! Give me a slave girl from the captives.' The Prophet said, 'Go and take any slave girl.' He took Safiya bint Huyai. A man came to the Prophet and said, 'O Allah's Apostle! You gave Safiya bint Huyai to Dihya and she is the chief mistress of the tribes of Quraiza and An-Nadir and she befits none but you.' So the Prophet said, 'Bring him along with her.' So Dihya came with her and when the Prophet saw her, he said to Dihya, 'Take any slave girl other than her from the captives.' Anas added: The Prophet then manumitted her and married her."
Thabit asked Anas, "O Abu Hamza! What did the Prophet pay her (as Mahr)?" He said, "Her self was her Mahr for he manumitted her and then married her." Anas added, "While on the way, Um Sulaim dressed her for marriage (ceremony) and at night she sent her as a bride to the Prophet . So the Prophet was a bridegroom and he said, 'Whoever has anything (food) should bring it.' He spread out a leather sheet (for the food) and some brought dates and others cooking butter. (I think he (Anas) mentioned As-Sawaq). So they prepared a dish of Hais (a kind of meal). And that was Walima (the marriage banquet) of Allah's Apostle ."
Sunan of Abu-DawoodHadith 3045 Narrated byA man of Juhaynah
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Probably you will fight with a people, you will dominate them, and they will save themselves and their children by their property. The version of Sa'id has You will then conclude peace with them. The agreed version goes: Then do no take anything from them more than that, for it is not proper for you.
Purity Of Intention
Sunan of Abu-DawoodHadith 2513 Narrated byAbdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As
Apostle of Allah, tell me about jihad and fighting. He replied: Abdullah ibn Amr, if you fight with endurance seeking from Allah your reward, Allah will resurrect you showing endurance and seeking your reward from Him, but, if you fight for vain show seeking to acquire much, Allah will resurrect you making a vain show and seeking to acquire much. In whatever you fight or are killed, Abdullah ibn Amr, in that state Allah will resurrect you.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.355 Narrated byAbu Musa Al Ashari
A bedouin asked the Prophet, "A man may fight for the sake of booty, and another may fight so that he may be mentioned by the people, and a third may fight to show his position (i.e. bravery); which of these regarded as fighting in Allah's cause?" The Prophet said, "He who fights so that Allah's Word (i.e. Islam) should be superior, fights for Allah's cause."
Sunan of Abu-DawoodHadith 3279 Narrated byIkrimah ibn AbuJahl
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: I swear by Allah, I shall fight against the Quraysh; I swear by Allah, I shall fight against the Quraysh; I swear by Allah, I shall fight against the Quraysh. He then said: "If Allah wills."
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 3.694 Narrated byAbu Dhar
I asked the Prophet, "What is the best deed?" He replied, "To believe in Allah and to fight for His cause." I then asked, "What is the best kind of manumission (of slaves)?" He replied, "The manumission of the most expensive slave and the most beloved by his master." I said, "If I cannot afford to do that?" He said, "Help the weak or do good for a person who cannot work for himself." I said, "If I cannot do that?" He said, "Refrain from harming others for this will be regarded as a charitable deed for your own good."
Spirit Of Jihad
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 5.288 Narrated byIbn Masud
I witnessed Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad in a scene which would have been dearer to me than anything had I been the hero of that scene. He (i.e. Al-Miqdad) came to the Prophet while the Prophet was urging the Muslims to fight with the pagans. Al-Miqdad said, "We will not say as the People of Moses said: Go you and your Lord and fight you two. (5.27). But we shall fight on your right and on your left and in front of you and behind you." I saw the face of the Prophet getting bright with happiness, for that saying delighted him.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 5.380 Narrated byZaid bin Thabit
When the Prophet set out for (the battle of) Uhud, some of those who had gone out with him, returned. The companions of the Prophet were divided into two groups. One group said, "We will fight them (i.e. the enemy)," and the other group said, "We will not fight them." So there came the Divine Revelation: "(O Muslims!) Then what is the matter within you that you are divided. Into two parties about the hypocrites? Allah has cast them back (to disbelief) BeCause of what they have earned." (4.88) On that, the Prophet said, "That is Taiba (i.e. the city of Medina) which clears one from one's sins as the fire expels the impurities of silver."
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 6.116 Narrated byZaid bin Thabit
That the Prophet dictated to him: "Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home) and those who strive and fight in the Cause of Allah."
Zaid added: Ibn Um Maktum came while the Prophet was dictating to me and said, "O Allah's Apostle! By Allah, if I had the power to fight (in Allah's Cause), I would," and he was a blind man. So Allah revealed to his Apostle while his thigh was on my thigh, and his thigh became so heavy that I was afraid it might fracture my thigh. Then that state of the Prophet passed and Allah revealed: "Except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame etc)."
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 9.561 Narrated byAbu Huraira
Allah's Prophet Solomon who had sixty wives, once said, "Tonight I will have sexual relation (sleep) with all my wives so that each of them will become pregnant and bring forth (a boy who will grow into) a cavalier and will fight in Allah's Cause." So he slept with his wives and none of them (conceived and) delivered (a child) except one who brought a half (body) boy (deformed). Allah's Prophet said, "If Solomon had said; 'If Allah Will,' then each of those women would have delivered a (would-be) cavalier to fight in Allah's Cause." (See Hadith No. 74 A, Vol. 4).
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 5.241 Narrated byAisha
Sad said, "O Allah! You know that there is none against whom I am eager to fight more willingly for Your Cause than those people who disbelieved Your Apostle and drove him out (of his city). O Allah! I think that You have ended the fight between us and them."
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 5.378 Narrated byKhabbab bin Al Art
We migrated in the company of Allah's Apostle, seeking Allah's pleasure. So our reward became due and sure with Allah. Some of us have been dead without enjoying anything of their rewards (here), and one of them was Mus'ab bin 'Umar who was martyred on the day of the battle of Uhud, and did not leave anything except a Namira (i.e. a sheet in which he was shrouded). If we covered his head with it, his feet became naked, and if we covered his feet with it, his head became naked. So the Prophet said to us, "Cover his head with it and put some Idhkhir (i.e. a kind of grass) over his feet or throw Idhkhir over his feet." But some amongst us have got the fruits of their labor ripened, and they are collecting them.
Narrated Anas: His uncle (Anas bin An-Nadr) was absent from the battle of Badr and he said, "I was absent from the first battle of the Prophet (i.e. Badr battle), and if Allah should let me participate in (a battle) with the Prophet, Allah will see how strongly I will fight." So he encountered the day of Uhud battle. The Muslims fled and he said, "O Allah! I appeal to You to excuse me for what these people (i.e. the Muslims) have done, and I am clear from what the pagans have done." Then he went forward with his sword and met Sad bin Mu'adh (fleeing), and asked him, "Where are you going, O Sad? I detect a smell of Paradise before Uhud." Then he proceeded on and was martyred. Nobody was able to recognize him till his sister recognized him by a mole on his body or by the tips of his fingers. He had over 80 wounds Caused by stabbing, striking or shooting with arrows.
Sunan of Abu-DawoodHadith 4292 Narrated byAbuBakrah
The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said: Some of my people will alight on low-lying ground, which they will call al-Basrah, beside a river called Dajjal (the Tigris) over which there is a bridge. Its people will be numerous and it will be one of the capital cities of immigrants (or one of the capital cities of Muslims, according to the version of Ibn Yahya who reported from AbuMa'mar). At the end of time the descendants of Qantura' will come with broad faces and small eyes and alight on the bank of the river. The town's inhabitants will then separate into three sections, one of which will follow cattle and (live in) the desert and perish, another of which will seek security for themselves and perish, but a third will put their children behind their backs and fight the invaders, and they will be the martyrs.
A Victorious Section
Sunan of Abu-DawoodHadith 418 Narrated byAbuAyyub
Marthad ibn Abdullah said: When AbuAyyub came upon us to fight the infidels and in those days Uqbah ibn Amir was the Governor of Egypt, he (Uqbah) delayed the sunset prayer. Hence AbuAyyub stood and said: What kind of prayer is this, Uqbah? He said: We were busy. He said: Did you not hear the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) say: My community will remain well, or he said: will remain on its natural condition, so long as it would not delay the evening prayer until the stars shine brightly just like a network.
Al-Tirmidhi HadithHadith 6280 Narrated byAbdurRahman ibn al-Ala' al-Hadrami
AbdurRahman was told the following by one who had heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) say it: "Among the last of this people will be some who will have a reward like that of the first of them. They will recommend what is reputable, forbid what is disreputable, and fight those who cause dissensions."Bayhaqi transmitted in Dala'il an-Nubuwwah.
Al-Tirmidhi HadithHadith 5364 Narrated byHudhayfah
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "The last hour will not come till you kill your leader, fight together with your swords, and your worst ones inherit your worldly goods."Tirmidhi transmitted it.
Sunan of Abu-DawoodHadith 2478 Narrated byImran ibn Husayn
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: A section of my community will continue to fight for the right and overcome their opponents till the last of them fights with the Antichrist.
Value Of Jihad
Al-Tirmidhi HadithHadith 1302 Narrated byAbuHurayrah
A companion of the Prophet (peace be upon him) came upon a valley in which there was a spring of sweet water which pleased him greatly. He reflected: I wish I could withdraw from people and settle in this valley; but I shall do it only with the permission of the Prophet (peace be upon him). He mentioned this to the Prophet (peace be upon him) who said to him: Do not do this, for one's standing ready in the cause of Allah is better than his Prayers in his home over seventy years. Would you not wish that Allah should forgive you and admit you to Paradise? Then fight in the cause of Allah. Paradise becomes incumbent for those who fight in the cause of Allah even for the briefest space.
Transmitted by Tirmidhi.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 6.133 Narrated byAbdullah (bin Masud)
On the day of Badr, Al-Miqdad said, "O Allah's Apostle! We do not say to you as the children of Israel said to Moses, 'Go you and your Lord and fight you two; we are sitting here, (5.24) but (we say), "Proceed, and we are with you." That seemed to delight Allah's Apostle greatly.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.61 Narrated byAnas
My uncle Anas bin An-Nadr was absent from the Battle of Badr. He said, "O Allah's Apostle! I was absent from the first battle you fought against the pagans. (By Allah) if Allah gives me a chance to fight the pagans, no doubt Allah will see how (bravely) I will fight." On the day of Uhud when the Muslims turned their backs and fled, he said, "O Allah! I apologize to You for what these (i.e. his companions) have done, and I denounce what these (i.e. the pagans) have done." Then he advanced and Sad bin Muadh met him. He said "O Sad bin Muadh ! By the Lord of An-Nadr, Paradise! I am smelling its aroma coming from before (the mountain of) Uhud," Later on Sad said, "O Allah's Apostle! I cannot achieve or do what he (i.e. Anas bin An-Nadr) did. We found more than eighty wounds by swords and arrows on his body. We found him dead and his body was mutilated so badly that none except his sister could recognize him by his fingers." We used to think that the following verse was revealed concerning him and other men of his sort: "Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah...." (33.23)
His sister Ar-Rubbaya' broke a front tooth of a woman and Allah's Apostle ordered for retaliation. On that Anas (bin An-Nadr) said, "O Allah's Apostle! By Him Who has sent you with the truth, my sister's tooth shall not be broken." Then the opponents of Anas's sister accepted the compensation and gave up the claim of retaliation. So Allah's Apostle said, "There are some people amongst Allah's slaves whose oaths are fulfilled by Allah when they take them."
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.63 Narrated byAl Bara
A man whose face was covered with an iron mask (i.e. clad in armor) came to the Prophet and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Shall I fight or embrace Islam first? "The Prophet said, "Embrace Islam first and then fight." So he embraced Islam, and was martyred. Allah's Apostle said, "A little work, but a great reward. "(He did very little (after embracing Islam), but he will be rewarded in abundance)."
Al-Tirmidhi HadithHadith 3830 Narrated byAbuHurayrah
When one of the companions of Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) came upon a mountain path containing a small spring of fresh water, which delighted him he expressed a desire to withdraw from the people and stay on the path. He mentioned that to Allah's Messenger who replied, "Do not do it, for when any of you remains on Allah's path it is more excellent than prayer in His house for seventy years. Do you not want Allah to forgive you and bring you into Paradise? Fight in Allah's cause. He who fights in Allah's cause as long as the time between two milkings of a she-camel will be assured of Paradise."Tirmidhi transmitted it.
Al-Tirmidhi HadithHadith 3694 Narrated byAl-Harith al-Ash'ari
Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "I command you to do five things: to maintain the community, to listen, to obey, to emigrate, and to fight in Allah's cause. He who secedes from the community as much as a span has cast off the tie of Islam from his neck unless he returns, and he who summons to what the pre-Islamic people believed belongs to the assemblies of Jahannam even if he fasts, prays, and asserts that he is a Muslim."
Ahmad and Tirmidhi transmitted it.
Ratio Of Steadfast Believers
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 6.175 Narrated byIbn Abbas
When the Verse: "If there are twenty steadfast amongst you, they will overcome two hundred." (8.65) was revealed, then it became obligatory for the Muslims that one (Muslim) should not flee from ten (non-Muslims). Sufyan (the sub-narrator) once said, "Twenty (Muslims) should not flee before two hundred (non-Muslims)." Then there was revealed: "But now Allah has lightened your (task)..." (8.66)
So it became obligatory that one-hundred (Muslims) should not flee before two hundred (non-Muslims). (Once Sufyan said extra, "The Verse: 'Urge the believers to the fight. If there are twenty steadfast amongst you (Muslims) patient and persevering...' was revealed.") Sufyan said, "Ibn Shabrama said, 'I see that this order is applicable to the obligation of enjoining good and forbidding evil."
Desire For Martyrdom
Sahih Muslim HadithHadith 4696 Narrated byAbuHurayrah
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: One who died but did not fight in the way of Allah nor did he express any desire (or determination) for Jihad died the death of a hypocrite.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.386 Narrated byJubair bin Haiya
'Umar sent the Muslims to the great countries to fight the pagans. When Al-Hurmuzan embraced Islam, 'Umar said to him. "I would like to consult you regarding these countries which I intend to invade." Al-Hurmuzan said, "Yes, the example of these countries and their inhabitants who are the enemiesof the Muslims, is like a bird with a head, two wings and two legs; if one of its wings got broken, it would get up over its two legs, with one wing and the head; and if the other wing got broken, it would get up with two legs and a head, but if its head got destroyed, then the two legs, two wings and the head would become useless. The head stands for Khosrau, and one wing stands for Caesar and the other wing stands for Faris. So, order the Muslims to go towards Khosrau." So, 'Umar sent us (to Khosrau) appointing An-Numan bin Muqrin as our commander. When we reached the land of the enemy, the representative of Khosrau came out with forty-thousand warriors, and an interpreter got up saying, "Let one of you talk to me!" Al-Mughira replied, "Ask whatever you wish." The other asked, "Who are you?" Al-Mughira replied, "We are some people from the Arabs; we led a hard, miserable, disastrous life: we used to suck the hides and the date stones from hunger; we used to wear clothes made up of fur of camels and hair of goats, and to worship trees and stones. While we were in this state, the Lord of the Heavens and the Earths, Elevated is His Remembrance and Majestic is His Highness, sent to us from among ourselves a Prophet whose father and mother are known to us. Our Prophet, the Messenger of our Lord, has ordered us to fight you till you worship Allah Alone or give Jizya (i.e. tribute); and our Prophet has informed us that our Lord says: "Whoever amongst us is killed (i.e. martyred), shall go to Paradise to lead such a luxurious life as he has never seen, and whoever amongst us remain alive, shall become your master." (Al-Mughira then blamed An-Numan for delaying the attack and) An-Nu' man said to Al-Mughira, "If you had participated in a similar battle, in the company of Allah's Apostle he would not have blamed you for waiting, nor would he have disgraced you. But I accompanied Allah's Apostle in many battles and it was his custom that if he did not fight early by daytime, he would wait till the wind had started blowing and the time for the prayer was due (i.e. after midday)."
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 5.510 Narrated byAnas
Allah's Apostle reached Khaibar at night and it was his habit that, whenever he reached the enemy at night, he will not attack them till it was morning. When it was morning, the Jews came out with their spades and baskets, and when they saw him(i.e. the Prophet ), they said, "Muhammad! By Allah! Muhammad and his army!" The Prophet said, "Khaibar is destroyed, for whenever we approach a (hostile) nation (to fight), then evil will be the morning for those who have been warned."
Narrated Anas bin Malik: We reached Khaibar early in the morning and the inhabitants of Khaibar came out carrying their spades, and when they saw the Prophet they said, "Muhammad! By Allah! Muhammad and his army!" The Prophet said, "Allahu-Akbar! Khaibar is destroyed, for whenever we approach a (hostile) nation (to fight) then evil will be the morning for those who have been warned." We then got the meat of donkeys (and intended to eat it), but an announcement was made by the announcer of the Prophet, "Allah and His Apostle forbid you to eat the meat of donkeys as it is an impure thing."
Sahih Muslim HadithHadith 4385 Narrated byAbbas ibn AbdulMuttalib
I was in the company of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) on the Day of Hunayn. AbuSufyan ibn Harith ibn AbdulMuttalib and I stayed with the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and we did not separate from him. And the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was riding on his white mule which had been presented to him by Farwah ibn Nufathah al-Judhami. When the Muslims had an encounter with the nonbelievers, the Muslims fled in retreat, but the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) began to spur his mule towards the nonbelievers. I was holding the bridle of the mule of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), checking it from going too fast. AbuSufyan was holding the stirrup of the (mule of the) Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), who said: Abbas, call out to the people of as-Samurah. Abbas (who was a man with a loud voice) called out at the top of his voice: Where are the people of Samurah? (Abbas said:) And by God, when they heard my voice, they came back (to us) as cows come back to their calves, and said: We are here, we are here! Abbas said: They began to fight the infidels. Then there was a call to the Ansar. Those (who called out to them) shouted: O. ye party of the Ansar! O party of the Ansar! Banu al-Harith ibn al-Khazraj were the last to be called. Those (who called out to them) shouted: O Banu al-Harith ibn al-Khazraj! O Banu Harith ibn al-Khazraj! And the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), who was riding, his mule, looked at them fighting with his neck stretched forward and he said: This is the time when the fight is raging hot. Then the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) took (some) pebbles and threw them in the face of the infidels. Then he said: By the Lord of Muhammad, the infidels are defeated. Abbas said: I went round and saw that the battle was in the same condition in which I had seen it. By Allah, it remained in the same condition until he threw the pebbles. I continued to watch until I found that their force had been spent and they began to retreat.
Sahih Muslim HadithHadith 4555 Narrated byAbuHurayrah
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: One who defects from obedience (to the Amir) and separates from the main body of the Muslims--if he dies in that state--will die the death of one belonging to the days of Jahiliyyah (i.e. would not die as a Muslim). One who fights under the banner of a people who are blind (to the cause for which they are fighting, i.e. do not know whether their cause is just or otherwise), who is puffed up with family pride, calls (people) to fight for their family honour, and supports his kith and kin (i.e. fights not for the cause of Allah but for the sake of his family or tribe)--if he is killed (in this fight), he dies as one belonging to the days of Jahiliyyah. Whoever attacks my Ummah, (indiscriminately) killing the righteous and the wicked of them, sparing not (even) those staunch in faith, and not fulfilling his promise made with those who have been given a pledge of a security--he has nothing to do with me and I have nothing to do with him.
Sahih Muslim HadithHadith 6853 Narrated byIyad ibn Himar
Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him), while delivering a sermon one day, said: Behold, my Lord commanded me that I should teach you that which you do not know and that which He has taught me today. (He has instructed thus): The property which I have conferred upon them is lawful for them. I have created My servants as one having a natural inclination to the worship of Allah but it is Satan who turns them away from the right religion. He makes unlawful that which has been declared lawful for them and he commands them to ascribe partnership to Me" although he has no justification for that. Verily, Allah looked towards the people of the world and He showed hatred for the Arabs and the non-Arabs, with the exception of some remnants from the People of the Book. He (further) said: I have sent thee (the Holy Prophet) in order to put you to the test and put (those to the test) through you. I sent the Book to you, which cannot be washed away by water, so that you may recite it while in the state of wakefulness or sleep." Verily, Allah commanded me to burn (kill) the Quraysh. I said: My Lord, they would break my head (like the tearing) of bread. Allah said: You turn them out as they turned you out, you fight against them and We shall help you in this, you spend and you will be given more. You send an army and I shall send an army five times greater than that. Fight with those who obey you against those who disobey you. The inmates of Paradise are of three types: one who wields authority and is just and fair; one who is truthful and has been endowed with power to do good deeds; and the person who is merciful and kind-hearted towards his relatives and to every pious Muslim, and who does not stretch out his hand in spite of having a large family to support. He continued: The inmates of Hell are of five types: the weak who lack power to (avoid evil), the (carefree) who pursue (everything irrespective of the fact that it is good or evil) and who do not have any care for their family or for their wealth those dishonest people whose greed cannot be concealed even in the case of minor things; and the third type, who betrays you morning and evening, in regard to your family and your property. He also mentioned the miser the liar and those who are in the habit of abusing people and using obscene and foul language. AbuGhassan in his narration did not mention "Spend and there would be spent for you."
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 1.584 Narrated byHumaid
Anas bin Malik said, "Whenever the Prophet went out with us to fight (in Allah's cause) against any nation, he never allowed us to attack till morning and he would wait and see: if he heard Adhan he would postpone the attack and if he did not hear Adhan he would attack them." Anas added, "We reached Khaibar at night and in the morning when he did not hear the Adhan for the prayer, he (the Prophet ) rode and I rode behind Abi Talha and my foot was touching that of the Prophet.
The inhabitants of Khaibar came out with their baskets and spades and when they saw the Prophet they shouted 'Mhammad! By Allah, Muhammad and his army.' When Allah's Apostle saw them, he said, 'Allahu-Akbar! Allahu-Akbar! Khaibar is ruined. Whenever we approach a (hostile) nation (to fight), then evil will be the morning of those who have been warned.' "
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.253 Narrated bySahl
On the day (of the battle) of Khaibar the Prophet said, "Tomorrow I will give the flag to somebody who will be given victory (by Allah) and who loves Allah and His Apostle and is loved by Allah and His Apostle." So, the people wondered all that night as to who would receive the flag and in the morning everyone hoped that he would be that person. Allah's Apostle asked, "Where is 'Ali?" He was told that 'Ali was suffering from eye-trouble, so he applied saliva to his eyes and invoked Allah to cure him. He at once got cured as if he had no ailment. The Prophet gave him the flag. 'Ali said, "Should I fight them till they become like us (i.e. Muslim)?" The Prophet said, "Go to them patiently and calmly till you enter the land. Then, invite them to Islam, and inform them what is enjoined upon them, for, by Allah, if Allah gives guidance to somebody through you, it is better for you than possessing red camels."
Duty To Forgive
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 5.399 Narrated byJafar bin Amr bin Umaiya
I went out with 'Ubaidullah bin 'Adi Al-Khaiyar. When we reached Hims (i.e. a town in Syria), 'Ubaidullah bin 'Adi said (to me), "Would you like to see Wahshi so that we may ask him about the killing of Hamza?" I replied, "Yes." Wahshi used to live in Hims. We enquired about him and somebody said to us, "He is that in the shade of his palace, as if he were a full water skin." So we went up to him, and when we were at a short distance from him, we greeted him and he greeted us in return. 'Ubaidullah was wearing his turban and Wahshi could not see except his eyes and feet. 'Ubaidullah said, "O Wahshi! Do you know me?" Wahshi looked at him and then said, "No, by Allah! But I know that 'Adi bin Al-Khiyar married a woman called Um Qital, the daughter of Abu Al-Is, and she delivered a boy for him at Mecca, and I looked for a wet nurse for that child. (Once) I carried that child along with his mother and then I handed him over to her, and your feet resemble that child's feet." Then 'Ubaidullah uncovered his face and said (to Wahshi), "Will you tell us (the story of) the killing of Hamza?" Wahshi replied "Yes, Hamza killed Tuaima bin 'Adi bin Al-Khaiyar at Badr (battle) so my master, Jubair bin Mut'im said to me, 'If you kill Hamza in revenge for my uncle, then you will be set free." When the people set out (for the battle of Uhud) in the year of 'Ainain ('Ainain is a mountain near the mountain of Uhud, and between it and Uhud there is a valley) I went out with the people for the battle. When the army aligned for the fight, Siba' came out and said, 'Is there any (Muslim) to accept my challenge to a duel?' Hamza bin 'Abdul Muttalib came out and said, 'O Siba! O Ibn Um Anmar, the one who circumcises other ladies! Do you challenge Allah and His Apostle?' Then Hamza attacked and killed him, causing him to be non-extant like the bygone yesterday. I hid myself under a rock, and when he (i.e. Hamza) came near me, I threw my spear at him, driving it into his umbilicus so that it came out through his buttocks, causing him to die. When all the people returned to Mecca, I too returned with them. I stayed in (Mecca) till Islam spread in it (i.e. Mecca). Then I left for Taif, and when the people (of Taif) sent their messengers to Allah's Apostle, I was told that the Prophet did not harm the messengers; so I too went out with them till I reached Allah's Apostle. When he saw me, he said, 'Are you Wahshi?' I said, 'Yes.' He said, 'Was it you who killed Hamza?' I replied, 'What happened is what you have been told of.' He said, 'Can you hide your face from me?' So I went out when Allah's Apostle died, and Musailamah Al-Kadhdhab appeared (claiming to be a prophet). I said, 'I will go out to Musailamah so that I may kill him, and make amends for killing Hamza. So I went out with the people (to fight Musailamah and his followers) and then famous events took place concerning that battle. Suddenly I saw a man (i.e. Musailamah) standing near a gap in a wall. He looked like an ash-colored camel and his hair was dishevelled. So I threw my spear at him, driving it into his chest in between his breasts till it passed out through his shoulders, and then an Ansari man attacked him and struck him on the head with a sword. 'Abdullah bin 'Umar said, 'A slave girl on the roof of a house said: Alas! The chief of the believers (i.e. Musailamah) has been killed by a black slave.'
Makkah Is Declared Sacred
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 5.589 Narrated byAbu Shuraih
Al-Adawi that he said to 'Amr bin Said while the latter was sending troops in batches to Mecca, "O chief! Allow me to tell you a Statement which Allah's Apostle said on the second day of the Conquest of Mecca. My two ears heard it and my heart remembered it and my two eyes saw him when he said it. He (i.e. the Prophet) praised Allah and then said, 'Mecca has been made a sanctuary by Allah and not by the people, so it is not lawful for a person, who believes in Allah and the Last Day to shed blood in it, or to cut its trees and if someone asks the permission to fight in Mecca because Allah's Apostle was allowed to fight in it, say to him; Allah permitted His Apostle and did not allow you, and even he (i.e. the Apostle) was allowed for a short period of the day, and today its (Mecca's) sanctity has become the same as it was before (of old) so those who are present should inform those who are absent (this Hadith)." Then Abu Shuraih, was asked, "What did 'Amr say to you?" Abu Shuraih said, "He said, 'I knew that better than you, O Abu Shuraih! The Haram (i.e. Mecca) does not give refuge to a sinner or a fleeing murderer or a person running away after causing destruction.' "
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 1.104 Narrated bySaid
Abu Shuraih said, "When 'Amr bin Said was sending the troops to Mecca (to fight 'Abdullah bin Az-Zubair) I said to him, 'O chief! Allow me to tell you what the Prophet said on the day following the conquests of Mecca. My ears heard and my heart comprehended, and I saw him with my own eyes, when he said it. He glorified and praised Allah and then said, "Allah and not the people has made Mecca a sanctuary. So anybody who has belief in Allah and the Last Day (i.e. a Muslim) should neither shed blood in it nor cut down its trees. If anybody argues that fighting is allowed in Mecca as Allah's Apostle did fight (in Mecca), tell him that Allah gave permission to His Apostle, but He did not give it to you. The Prophet added: Allah allowed me only for a few hours on that day (of the conquest) and today (now) its sanctity is the same (valid) as it was before. So it is incumbent upon those who are present to convey it (this information) to those who are absent." Abu- Shuraih was asked, "What did 'Amr reply?" He said 'Amr said, "O Abu Shuraih! I know better than you (in this respect). Mecca does not give protection to one who disobeys (Allah) or runs after committing murder, or theft (and takes refuge in Mecca).
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 2.432 Narrated byIbn Abbas
The Prophet said, "Allah has made Mecca a sanctuary (sacred place) and it was a sanctuary before me and will be so after me. It was made legal for me (to fight in it) for a few hours of the day. None is allowed to uproot its thorny shrubs or to cut its trees or to chase its game or to pick up its fallen things except by a person who announces it publicly." On that Al-Abbas said (to the Prophet), "Except Al-Idhkhir for our goldsmiths and for our graves." And so the Prophet added, "Except Al-Idhkhir. " And Abu Huraira narrated that the Prophet said, "Except Al-Idhkhir for our graves and houses." And Ibn Abbas said, "For their goldsmiths and houses."
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 6.187 Narrated byIbn Abi Mulaika
There was a disagreement between them (i.e. Ibn 'Abbas and Ibn Az-Zubair) so I went to Ibn 'Abbas in the morning and said (to him), "Do you want to fight against Ibn Zubair and thus make lawful what Allah has made unlawful (i.e. fighting in Mecca)?" Ibn 'Abbas said, "Allah forbid! Allah ordained that Ibn Zubair and Bani Umaiya would permit (fighting in Mecca), but by Allah, I will never regard it as permissible." Ibn Abbas added. "The people asked me to take the oath of allegiance to Ibn Az-Zubair. I said, 'He is really entitled to assume authority for his father, Az-Zubair was the helper of the Prophet, his (maternal) grandfather, Abu Bakr was (the Prophet's) companion in the cave, his mother, Asma' was 'Dhatun-Nitaq', his aunt, 'Aisha was the mother of the Believers, his paternal aunt, Khadija was the wife of the Prophet , and the paternal aunt of the Prophet was his grandmother. He himself is pious and chaste in Islam, well versed in the Knowledge of the Quran. By Allah! (Really, I left my relatives, Bani Umaiya for his sake though) they are my close relatives, and if they should be my rulers, they are equally apt to be so and are descended from a noble family.' "
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 6.120 Narrated byMuhammad bin Abdur Rahman Abu Al Aswad
The people of Medina were forced to prepare an army (to fight against the people of Sham during the caliphate of 'Abdullah bin Az-Zubair at Mecca), and I was enlisted in it. Then I met 'Ikrima, the freed slave of Ibn 'Abbas, and informed him (about it), and he forbade me strongly to do so (i.e. to enlist in that army), and then said, "Ibn 'Abbas informed me that some Muslim people were with the pagans, increasing the number of the pagans against Allah's Apostle. An arrow used to be shot which would hit one of them (the Muslims in the company of the pagans) and kill him, or he would be struck and killed (with a sword)." Then Allah revealed:
"Verily! as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves (by staying among the disbelievers)..." (4.97) Abu Aswad added, "Except the weak ones among men, women..." (4.98)
Exclusion Of Jihad
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 6.118 Narrated byAl Bara
When the Verse: "Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home)," (4.95) was revealed, the Prophet said, "Call so-and-so." That person came to him with an ink-pot and a wooden board or a shoulder scapula bone. The Prophet said (to him), "Write: 'Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and those who strive and fight in the Cause of Allah." Ibn Um Maktum who was sitting behind the Prophet then said, "O Allah's Apostle! I am a blind man." So there was revealed in the place of that Verse, the Verse: "Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home) except those who are disabled (by injury, or are blind or lame etc.) and those who strive and fight in the Cause of Allah." (4.95)
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 6.512 Narrated byAl Bara
There was revealed: "Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and those who strive and fight in the Cause of Allah." (4.95)
The Prophet said, "Call Zaid for me and let him bring the board, the inkpot and the scapula bone (or the scapula bone and the ink pot)." Then he said, "Write: 'Not equal are those Believers who sit...", and at that time 'Amr bin Um Maktum, the blind man was sitting behind the Prophet . He said, "O Allah's Apostle! What is your order for me (as regards the above Verse) as I am a blind man?" So, instead of the above Verse, the following Verse was revealed:
"Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame etc.) and those who strive and fight in the cause of Allah." (4.95)
Kindness Towards Prisoners
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 8.226 Narrated byUsama bin Zaid
That Allah's Apostle rode over a donkey covered with a Fadakiya (velvet sheet) and Usama was riding behind him. He was visiting Sa'd bin 'Ubada (who was sick) in the dwelling place of Bani Al-Harith bin Al-Khazraj and this incident happened before the battle of Badr. They proceeded till they passed by a gathering in which 'Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul was present., and that was before 'Abdullah bin Ubat embraced Islam. In that gathering there were Muslims, pagan idolators and Jews, and among the Muslims there was 'Abdullah bin Rawaha.
When a cloud of dust raised by (the movement of ) the animal covered that gathering, 'Abdullah bin Ubai covered his nose with his garment and said, "Do not cover us with dust." Allah's Apostle greeted them, stopped, dismounted and invited them to Allah (i.e. to embrace Islam) and recited to them the Holy Qur'an. On that 'Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul said to him, "O man! There is nothing better than what you say, if it is the truth. So do not trouble us with it in our gatherings, but if somebody comes to you, you can preach to him." On that 'Abdullah bin Rawaha said "Yes, O Allah's Apostle! Call on us in our gathering, for we love that." So the Muslims, the pagans and the Jews started abusing one another till they were about to fight with one another. Allah's Apostle kept on quietening them till all of them became quiet, and then Allah's Apostle rode his animal and proceeded till he entered upon Sa'd bin 'Ubada. Allah's Apostle said, "O Sa'd! Didn't you hear what Abu Habab said?" (meaning 'Abdullah bin Unbar). "He said so-and-so." Sa'd bin Ubada said, "O Allah's Apostle! Let my father be sacrificed for you! Excuse and forgive him for, by Him Who revealed to you the Book, Allah sent the Truth which was revealed to you at the time when the people of this town had decided to crown him ('Abdullah bin Ubai) as their ruler.
So when Allah had prevented that with the Truth He had given you, he was choked by that, and that caused him to behave in such an impolite manner which you had noticed." So Allah's Apostle excused him. (It was the custom of) Allah's Apostle and his companions to excuse the pagans and the people of the scripture (Christians and Jews) as Allah ordered them, and they used to be patient when annoyed (by them). Allah said: "You shall certainly hear much that will grieve you from those who received the Scripture before you...and from the pagans." (3.186)
He also said: "Many of the people of the scripture wish that if they could turn you away as disbelievers after you have believed..." (2.109) So Allah's Apostle used to apply what Allah had ordered him by excusing them till he was allowed to fight against them. When Allah's Apostle had fought the battle of Badr and Allah killed whomever He killed among the chiefs of the infidels and the nobles of Quraish, and Allah's Apostle and his companions had returned with victory and booty, bringing with them some of the chiefs of the infidels and the nobles of the Quraish as captives. 'Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul and the pagan idolators who were with him, said, "This matter (Islam) has now brought out its face (triumphed), so give Allah's Apostle the pledge of allegiance (for embracing Islam.)" Then they became Muslims.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 5.512 Narrated byAnas
The Prophet offered the Fajr Prayer near Khaibar when it was still dark and then said, "Allahu-Akbar! Khaibar is destroyed, for whenever we approach a (hostile) nation (to fight), then evil will be the morning for those who have been warned." Then the inhabitants of Khaibar came out running on the roads. The Prophet had their warriors killed, their offspring and woman taken as captives. Safiya was amongst the captives. She first came in the share of Dahya Alkali but later on she belonged to the Prophet . The Prophet made her manumission as her 'Mahr'.
Trial In Fighting
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 9.215 Narrated bySaid bin Jubair
'Abdullah bin 'Umar came to us and we hoped that he would narrate to us a good Hadith. But before we asked him, a man got up and said to him, "O Abu 'Abdur-Rahman! Narrate to us about the battles during the time of the afflictions, as Allah says:
'And fight them until there is no more afflictions (i.e. no more worshipping of others besides Allah).( (2.193) Ibn 'Umar said (to the man), "Do you know what is meant by afflictions? Let your mother bereave you! Muhammad used to fight against the pagans, for a Muslim was put to trial in his religion (The pagans will either kill him or chain him as a captive). His fighting was not like your fighting which is carried on for the sake of ruling."
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 1.125 Narrated byAbu Musa
A man came to the Prophet and asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What kind of fighting is in Allah's cause? (I ask this), for some of us fight because of being enraged and angry and some for the sake of his pride and haughtiness." The Prophet raised his head (as the questioner was standing) and said, "He who fights so that Allah's Word (Islam) should be superior, then he fights in Allah's cause."
Duties Of Authoritarians
Al-Tirmidhi HadithHadith 3375 Narrated byAbuBakr as-Siddiq
Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "One who treats badly those under his authority will not enter Paradise." He was asked whether he had not told them that these people had more slaves and orphans than any other, and replied, "Yes, so treat them as generously as you treat your children and give them food from what you eat." They then asked what benefit they acquired from the world, and he replied, "A horse which you equip for riding it to fight in Allah's cause, and a slave who serves you sufficiently; and when he prays he is your brother."Transmitted by Ibn Majah.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.196 Narrated byAbu Huraira
Allah 's Apostle said, "I have been ordered to fight with the people till they say, 'None has the right to be worshipped but Allah,' and whoever says, 'None has the right to be worshipped but Allah,' his life and property will be saved by me except for Islamic law, and his accounts will be with Allah, (either to punish him or to forgive him.)"
Sahih Muslim HadithHadith 6095 Narrated byAbdullah ibn Abbas
The Muslims neither looked to AbuSufyan (with respect) nor did they sit in his company. He (AbuSufyan) said to Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him): Allah's Apostle, confer, upon me three things. He replied in the affirmative. He (further) said: I have with me the most handsome and the best (woman) Umm Habibah, daughter of AbuSufyan; marry her, whereupon he said: Yes. And he again said: Accept Mu'awiyah to serve as your scribe. He said: Yes. He again said: Make me the commander (of the Muslim army) so that I should fight against the unbelievers as I fought against the Muslims. He said: Yes. AbuZumayl said: If he had not asked for these three things from Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him), he would have never conferred them upon him, for it was (his habit) to accede to everybody's (earnest) request.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 5.50 Narrated byAmr bin Maimun
I saw 'Umar bin Al-Khattab a few days before he was stabbed in Medina. He was standing with Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman and 'Uthman bin Hunaif to whom he said, "What have you done? Do you think that you have imposed more taxation on the land (of As-Swad, i.e. 'Iraq) than it can bear?" They replied, "We have imposed on it what it can bear beCause of its great yield." 'Umar again said, "Check whether you have imposed on the land what it cannot bear." They said, "No, (we haven't)." 'Umar added, "If Allah should keep me alive I will let the widows of Iraq need no men to support them after me." But only four days had elapsed when he was stabbed (to death). The day he was stabbed, I was standing and there was nobody between me and him (i.e. Umar) except Abdullah bin 'Abbas. Whenever 'Umar passed between the two rows, he would say, "Stand in straight lines."
When he saw no defect (in the rows), he would go forward and start the prayer with Takbir. He would recite Surat Yusuf or An-Nahl or the like in the first Rak'a so that the people may have the time to Join the prayer. As soon as he said Takbir, I heard him saying, "The dog has killed or eaten me," at the time he (i.e. the murderer) stabbed him. A non-Arab infidel proceeded on carrying a double-edged knife and stabbing all the persons he passed by on the right and left (till) he stabbed thirteen persons out of whom seven died. When one of the Muslims saw that, he threw a cloak on him. Realizing that he had been captured, the non-Arab infidel killed himself. 'Umar held the hand of 'Abdur-Rahman bin Auf and let him lead the prayer.
Those who were standing by the side of 'Umar saw what I saw, but the people who were in the other parts of the mosque did not see anything, but they lost the voice of 'Umar and they were saying, "Subhan Allah! Subhan Allah! (i.e. Glorified be Allah)." Abdur-Rahman bin Auf led the people a short prayer. When they finished the prayer, 'Umar said, "O Ibn 'Abbas! Find out who attacked me." Ibn 'Abbas kept on looking here and there for a short time and came to say. "The slave of Al Mughira." On that 'Umar said, "The craftsman?" Ibn 'Abbas said, "Yes." 'Umar said, "May Allah curse him. I did not treat him unjustly. All the praises are for Allah Who has not Caused me to die at the hand of a man who claims himself to be a Muslim. No doubt, you and your father (Abbas) used to love to have more non-Arab infidels in Medina." Al-Abbas had the greatest number of slaves. Ibn 'Abbas said to 'Umar. "If you wish, we will do." He meant, "If you wish we will kill them." 'Umar said, "You are mistaken (for you can't kill them) after they have spoken your language, prayed towards your Qibla, and performed Hajj like yours."
Then Umar was carried to his house, and we went along with him, and the people were as if they had never suffered a calamity before. Some said, "Do not worry (he will be all right soon)." Some said, "We are afraid (that he will die)." Then an infusion of dates was brought to him and he drank it but it came out (of the wound) of his belly. Then milk was brought to him and he drank it, and it also came out of his belly. The people realized that he would die. We went to him, and the people came, praising him. A young man came saying, "O chief of the believers! Receive the glad tidings from Allah to you due to your company with Allah's Apostle and your superiority in Islam which you know. Then you became the ruler (i.e. Caliph) and you ruled with justice and finally you have been martyred." 'Umar said, "I wish that all these privileges will counterbalance (my shortcomings) so that I will neither lose nor gain anything."
When the young man turned back to leave, his clothes seemed to be touching the ground. 'Umar said, "Call the young man back to me." (When he came back) 'Umar said, "O son of my brother! Lift your clothes, for this will keep your clothes clean and save you from the punishment of your Lord." 'Umar further said, "O 'Abdullah bin 'Umar! See how much I am in debt to others." When the debt was checked, it amounted to approximately eighty-six thousand. 'Umar said, "If the property of 'Umar's family covers the debt, then pay the debt thereof; otherwise request it from Bani 'Adi bin Ka'b, and if that too is not sufficient, ask for it from Quraish tribe, and do not ask for it from any one else, and pay this debt on my behalf."
'Umar then said (to 'Abdullah), "Go to 'Aisha (the mother of the believers) and say: "Umar is paying his salutation to you. But don't say: 'The chief of the believers,' beCause today I am not the chief of the believers. And say: "Umar bin Al-Khattab asks the permission to be buried with his two companions (i.e. the Prophet, and Abu Bakr)." Abdullah greeted 'Aisha and asked for the permission for entering, and then entered to her and found her sitting and weeping. He said to her, "'Umar bin Al-Khattab is paying his salutations to you, and asks the permission to be buried with his two companions." She said, "I had the idea of having this place for myself, but today I prefer 'Umar to myself." When he returned it was said (to 'Umar), "'Abdullah bin 'Umar has come." 'Umar said, "Make me sit up." Somebody supported him against his body and 'Umar asked ('Abdullah), "What news do you have?" He said, "O chief of the believers! It is as you wish. She has given the permission." 'Umar said, "Praise be to Allah, there was nothing more important to me than this. So when I die, take me, and greet 'Aisha and say: "Umar bin Al-Khattab asks the permission (to be buried with the Prophet), and if she gives the permission, bury me there, and if she refuses, then take me to the grave-yard of the Muslims."
Then Hafsa (the mother of the believers) came with many other women walking with her. When we saw her, we went away. She went in (to 'Umar) and wept there for sometime. When the men asked for permission to enter, she went into another place, and we heard her weeping inside. The people said (to 'Umar), "O chief of the believers! Appoint a successor." Umar said, "I do not find anyone more suitable for the job than the following persons or group whom Allah's Apostle had been pleased with before he died." Then 'Umar mentioned 'Ali, 'Uthman, AzZubair, Talha, Sad and 'Abdur-Rahman (bin Auf) and said, "Abdullah bin 'Umar will be a witness to you, but he will have no share in the rule. His being a witness will compensate him for not sharing the right of ruling. If Sad becomes the ruler, it will be alright: otherwise, whoever becomes the ruler should seek his help, as I have not dismissed him beCause of disability or dishonesty." 'Umar added, "I recommend that my successor takes care of the early emigrants; to know their rights and protect their honor and sacred things.
I also recommend that he be kind to the Ansar who had lived in Medina before the emigrants and belief had entered their hearts before them. I recommend that the (ruler) should accept the good of the righteous among them and excuse their wrong-doers, and I recommend that he should do good to all the people of the towns (Al-Ansar), as they are the protectors of Islam and the source of wealth and the source of annoyance to the enemy. I also recommend that nothing be taken from them except from their surplus with their consent. I also recommend that he do good to the 'Arab bedouin, as they are the origin of the 'Arabs and the material of Islam. He should take from what is inferior, amongst their properties and distribute that to the poor amongst them. I also recommend him concerning Allah's and His Apostle's protectees (i.e. Dhimmis) to fulfill their contracts and to fight for them and not to overburden them with what is beyond their ability." So when 'Umar expired, we carried him out and set out walking. 'Abdullah bin 'Umar greeted ('Aisha) and said, "'Umar bin Al-Khattab asks for the permission." 'Aisha said, "Bring him in." He was brought in and buried beside his two companions.
When he was buried, the group (recommended by 'Umar) held a meeting. Then 'Abdur-Rahman said, " Reduce the candidates for rulership to three of you." Az-Zubair said, "I give up my right to Ali." Talha said, "I give up my right to 'Uthman," Sad, 'I give up my right to 'Abdur-Rahman bin 'Auf." 'Abdur-Rahman then said (to 'Uthman and 'Ali), "Now which of you is willing to give up his right of candidacy to that he may choose the better of the (remaining) two, bearing in mind that Allah and Islam will be his witnesses." So both the sheiks (i.e. 'Uthman and 'Ali) kept silent. 'Abdur-Rahman said, "Will you both leave this matter to me, and I take Allah as my Witness that I will not choose but the better of you?" They said, "Yes." So 'Abdur-Rahman took the hand of one of them (i.e. 'Ali) and said, "You are related to Allah's Apostle and one of the earliest Muslims as you know well. So I ask you by Allah to promise that if I select you as a ruler you will do justice, and if I select 'Uthman as a ruler you will listen to him and obey him." Then he took the other (i.e. 'Uthman) aside and said the same to him. When 'Abdur-Rahman secured (their agreement to) this covenant, he said, "O 'Uthman! Raise your hand." So he (i.e. 'Abdur-Rahman) gave him (i.e. 'Uthman) the solemn pledge, and then 'Ali gave him the pledge of allegiance and then all the (Medina) people gave him the pledge of allegiance.
Running Away From Battle Field Not Allowed
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 5.430 Narrated byAl Bara
The Prophet was carrying earth on the day of Al-Khandaq till his abdomen was fully covered with dust, and he was saying, "By Allah, without Allah we would not have been guided, neither would we have given in charity, nor would we have prayed. So (O Allah), please send Sakina (i.e. calmness) upon us, and make our feet firm if we meet the enemy as the enemy have rebelled against us, and if they intended affliction, (i.e. want to frighten us and fight against us then we would not flee but withstand them)." The Prophet used to raise his voice saying, "Abaina! Abaina! (i.e. would not, we would not)."
Al-Tirmidhi HadithHadith 1251 Narrated byAbdullah ibn Mas'ud
Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: Our Lord is pleased with two men: One man who gets up from his bed and his quilt (parting) from his comfort and his wife for prayer. Allah says to His angels: Look at My servant, he got out of bed, his quilt (parting himself) from his comfort and his wife for the sake of prayer with an earnest desire for that which is with Me and out of fear of what is with Me. And a person who fights for the sake of Allah and retreats along with his companions, knowing what burden is there upon him for this retreat (and what reward is there for him) in returning (to fight). So he returns till his blood is shed and Allah says to the angels: Look at My servant, he returned with (the earnest) desire for that which is with Me, and out of fear of what is with Me till his blood was spilt.Transmitted by Ahmad and Baghawi, in Sharh as-Sunnah.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 5.432 Narrated byAl Bara
When it was the day of Al-Ahzab (i.e. the clans) and Allah's Apostle dug the trench, I saw him carrying earth out of the trench till dust made the skin of his abdomen out of my sight and he was a hairy man. I heard him reciting the poetic verses composed by Ibn Rawaha while he was carrying the earth, "O Allah! Without You we would not have been guided, nor would we have given in charity, nor would we have prayed. So, (O Allah), please send Sakina (i.e. calmness) upon us and make our feet firm if we meet the enemy, as they have rebelled against us. And if they intend affliction (i.e. want to frighten us, and fight against us) then we would not (flee but withstand them)." The Prophet would then prolong his voice at the last words.
Sahih Muslim HadithHadith 4576 Narrated byJabir ibn Abdullah
We were one thousand and four hundred on the Day of Hudaybiyyah. We swore fealty to him (the Prophet) and Umar was holding the latter's hand (when he was sitting) under the tree (called) Samurah (to administer the oath to the Companions). The narrator added: We took oath to the effect that we would not flee (from the battlefield if there was an encounter with the Meccans), but we did not take oath to fight to death.
Spoils Of War
Al-Muwatta Hadith Hadith 21.18 Stripping the Slain of their Personal Effects in the Booty
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from Amr ibn Kathir ibn Aflah from Abu Muhammad, the mawla of Abu Qatada that Abu Qatada ibn Ribi said, "We went out with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the year of Hunayn. When the armies met, the Muslims were put in disarray. I saw a man from the idol worshippers who had got the better of one of the Muslims, so I circled round and came up behind him, and struck him with a sword on his shoulder-blade. He turned to me and grabbed me so hard that I felt the smell of death in it. Then death overcame him, and he let go of me."
He continued, "I met Umar ibn al-Khattab and said to him, 'What's going on with the people?' He replied, 'The Command of Allah.' Then the people took hold of the battle and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Whoever has killed one of the dead and can prove it, can strip him of his personal effects.' I stood up and said, 'Who will testify for me?' and then I sat down. The Messenger of Allah repeated, 'Whoever has killed one of the dead and can prove it, can strip him of his personal effects.' I stood up and said, 'Who will testify for me?' then I sat down. Then he repeated his statement a third time, so I stood up, and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'What's the matter with you, Abu Qatada?' So I related my story to him. A man said, 'He has spoken the truth, Messenger of Allah. I have the effects of that slain person with me, so give him compensation for it, Messenger of Allah.'
Abu Bakr said, 'No, by Allah! He did not intend that one of the lions of Allah should fight for Allah and His Messenger and then give you his spoils.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'He has spoken the truth, hand it over to him.' He gave it to me, and I sold the breast-plate and I bought a garden in the area of the Banu Salima with the money. It was my first property, and I acquired it in Islam."
Sahih Muslim HadithHadith 4690 Narrated byAbdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: A troop of soldiers who fight in the way of Allah and get their share of the booty receive in advance two-thirds of their reward in the Hereafter and only one-third will remain (to their credit). If they do not receive any booty, they will get their full reward.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 8.109 Narrated byAbdullah bin Umar
When Allah Apostle was in Ta'if (trying to conquer it), he said to his companions, "Tomorrow we will return (to Medina), if Allah wills." Some of the companions of Allah's Apostle said, "We will not leave till we conquer it." The Prophet said, "Therefore, be ready to fight tomorrow." On the following day, they (Muslims) fought fiercely (with the people of Ta'if) and suffered many wounds. Then Allah's Apostle said, "Tomorrow we will return (to Medina), if Allah wills." His companions kept quiet this time. Allah's Apostle then smiled.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.360 Narrated byMarwan bin Al Hakim and Miswar bin Makhrama
When the Hawazin delegation came to Allah's Apostle after they had embraced Islam and requested him to return their properties and war prisoners to them, Allah's Apostle said, "To me the best talk is the truest, so you may choose either of two things; the war prisoners or the wealth, for I have delayed their distribution." Allah's Apostle had waited for them for over ten days when he returned from Ta'if. So, when those people came to know that Allah's Apostle was not going to return to them except one of the two things the said, "We choose our war prisoners." Allah's Apostle stood up amongst the Muslims, and after glorifying Allah as He deserved, he said, "Now then, these brothers of yours have come to us with repentance, and I see it logical that I should return their captives to them, so whoever of you likes to do that as a favor then he can do it, and whoever amongst you likes to stick to his share, let him give up his prisoners and we will compensate him from the very first Fai' (i.e. war booty received without fight) which Allah will give us." On that, all the people said. 'O Allah's Apostle!We have agreed willingly to do so (return the captives)." Then Allah's Apostle said to them "I do not know who amongst you has agreed to this and who has not. You should return and let your leaders inform me of your agreement." The people returned and their leaders spoke to them, and then came to Allah's Apostle and said, "All the people have agreed willingly to do so and have given the permission to return the war prisoners (without compensation)" (Az-Zuhri, the sub-narrator states): This is what has been related to us about the captives of Hawazin.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 5.626 Narrated byAnas Bin Malik
When it was the day (of the battle) of Hunain, the tributes of Hawazin and Ghatafan and others, along with their animals and offspring (and wives) came to fight against the Prophet. The Prophet had with him, ten thousand men and some of the Tulaqa. The companions fled, leaving the Prophet alone. The Prophet then made two calls which were clearly distinguished from each other. He turned right and said, "O the group of Ansar!" They said, "Labbaik, O Allah's Apostle! Rejoice, for we are with you!" Then he turned left and said, "O the group of Ansar!" They said, "Labbaik! O Allah's Apostle! Rejoice, for we are with you!" The Prophet at that time, was riding on a white mule; then he dismounted and said, "I am Allah's Slave and His Apostle." The infidels then were defeated, and on that day the Prophet gained a large amount of booty which he distributed amongst the Muhajirin and the Tulaqa and did not give anything to the Ansar. The Ansar said, "When there is a difficulty, we are called, but the booty is given to other than us." The news reached the Prophet and he gathered them in a leather tent and said, "What is this news reaching me from you, O the group of Ansar?" They kept silent. He added, "O the group of Ansar! Won't you be happy that the people take the worldly things and you take Allah's Apostle to your homes reserving him for yourself?" They said, "Yes." Then the Prophet said, "If the people took their way through a valley, and the Ansar took their way through a mountain pass, surely, I would take the Ansar's mountain pass." Hisham said, "O Abu Hamza (i.e. Anas)! Did you witness that?" He replied, "And how could I be absent from him?"
Rights Of Non-Muslims & Over Taxing
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.287 Narrated byAmr bin Maimun
Umar (after he was stabbed), instructed (his would-be-successor) saying, "I urge him (i.e. the new Caliph) to take care of those non-Muslims who are under the protection of Allah and His Apostle in that he should observe the convention agreed upon with them, and fight on their behalf (to secure their safety) and he should not over-tax them beyond their capability."
Duties Of Khalifah
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 2.475 Narrated byAmr bin Maimun Al Audi
I saw 'Umar bin Al-Khattab (when he was stabbed) saying, "O 'Abdullah bin 'Umar! Go to the mother of the believers 'Aisha and say, 'Umar bin Al-Khattab sends his greetings to you,' and request her to allow me to be buried with my companions." (So, Ibn 'Umar conveyed the message to 'Aisha.) She said, "I had the idea of having this place for myself but today I prefer him ('Umar) to myself (and allow him to be buried there)." When 'Abdullah bin 'Umar returned, 'Umar asked him, "What (news) do you have?" He replied, "O chief of the believers! She has allowed you (to be buried there)." On that 'Umar said, "Nothing was more important to me than to be buried in that (sacred) place. So, when I expire, carry me there and pay my greetings to her ('Aisha ) and say, 'Umar bin Al-Khattab asks permission; and if she gives permission, then bury me (there) and if she does not, then take me to the graveyard of the Muslims. I do not think any person has more right for the caliphate than those with whom Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) was always pleased till his death. And whoever is chosen by the people after me will be the caliph, and you people must listen to him and obey him," and then he mentioned the name of 'Uthman, 'Ali, Talha, Az-Zubair, 'Abdur-Rahman bin 'Auf and Sad bin Abi Waqqas.
By this time a young man from Ansar came and said, "O chief of the believers! Be happy with Allah's glad tidings. The grade which you have in Islam is known to you, then you became the caliph and you ruled with justice and then you have been awarded martyrdom after all this." 'Umar replied, "O son of my brother! Would that all that privileges will counterbalance (my short comings), so that I neither lose nor gain anything. I recommend my successor to be good to the early emigrants and realize their rights and to protect their honor and sacred things. And I also recommend him to be good to the Ansar who before them, had homes (in Medina) and had adopted the Faith. He should accept the good of the righteous among them and should excuse their wrongdoers. I recommend him to abide by the rules and regulations concerning the Dhimmis (protectees) of Allah and His Apostle, to fulfill their contracts completely and fight for them and not to tax (overburden) them beyond their capabilities."
Best Jihad For Women
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) Bukhari :: Book 2 :: Volume 26 :: Hadith 595 Narrated 'Aisha:
(the mother of the faithful believers) I said, "O Allah's Apostle! We consider Jihad as the best deed." The Prophet said, "The best Jihad (for women) is Hajj Mabrur. "
Penalty of Hunting while on Pilgrimmage Bukhari :: Book 3 :: Volume 29 :: Hadith 84 Narrated Aisha (mother of the faithful believers):
I said, "O Allah's Apostle! Shouldn't we participate in Holy battles and Jihad along with you?" He replied, "The best and the most superior Jihad (for women) is Hajj which is accepted by Allah." 'Aisha added: Ever since I heard that from Allah's Apostle I have determined not to miss Hajj.
The Best Fighting
Battles (Kitab Al-Malahim) Dawud :: Book 37 : Hadith 4330 Narrated AbuSa'id al-Khudri:
The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: The best fighting (jihad) in the path of Allah is (to speak) a word of justice to an oppressive ruler.
Women Rule Not Allowed
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 5.709 Narrated byAbu Bakra
During the days (of the battle) of Al-Jamal, Allah benefited me with a word I had heard from Allah's Apostle after I had been about to join the Companions of Al-Jamal (i.e. the camel) and fight along with them. When Allah's Apostle was informed that the Persians had crowned the daughter of Khosrau as their ruler, he said, "Such people as ruled by a lady will never be successful."
Women Allowed To Accompany Mahram During Jihad
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 5.462 Narrated byAisha
Whenever Allah's Apostle intended to go on a journey, he used to draw lots amongst his wives, and Allah's Apostle used to take with him the one on whom lot fell. He drew lots amongst us during one of the Ghazwat which he fought. The lot fell on me and so I proceeded with Allah's Apostle after Allah's order of veiling (the women) had been revealed. I was carried (on the back of a camel) in my howdah and carried down while still in it (when we came to a halt). So we went on till Allah's Apostle had finished from that Ghazwa of his and returned.
When we approached the city of Medina he announced at night that it was time for departure. So when they announced the news of departure, I got up and went away from the army camps, and after finishing from the call of nature, I came back to my riding animal. I touched my chest to find that my necklace which was made of Zifar beads (i.e. Yemenite beads partly black and partly white) was missing. So I returned to look for my necklace and my search for it detained me. (In the meanwhile) the people who used to carry me on my camel, came and took my howdah and put it on the back of my camel on which I used to ride, as they considered that I was in it. In those days women were light in weight for they did not get fat, and flesh did not cover their bodies in abundance as they used to eat only a little food. Those people therefore, disregarded the lightness of the howdah while lifting and carrying it; and at that time I was still a young girl. They made the camel rise and all of them left (along with it). I found my necklace after the army had gone.
Then I came to their camping place to find no call maker of them, nor one who would respond to the call. So I intended to go to the place where I used to stay, thinking that they would miss me and come back to me (in my search). While I was sitting in my resting place, I was overwhelmed by sleep and slept. Safwan bin Al-Muattal As-Sulami Adh-Dhakwani was behind the army. When he reached my place in the morning, he saw the figure of a sleeping person and he recognized me on seeing me as he had seen me before the order of compulsory veiling (was prescribed). So I woke up when he recited Istirja' (i.e. "Inna lillahi wa inna llaihi raji'un") as soon as he recognized me. I veiled my face with my head cover at once, and by Allah, we did not speak a single word, and I did not hear him saying any word besides his Istirja'. He dismounted from his camel and made it kneel down, putting his leg on its front legs and then I got up and rode on it. Then he set out leading the camel that was carrying me till we overtook the army in the extreme heat of midday while they were at a halt (taking a rest). (Because of the event) some people brought destruction upon themselves and the one who spread the Ifk (i.e. slander) more, was 'Abdullah bin Ubai Ibn Salul."
(Urwa said, "The people propagated the slander and talked about it in his (i.e. 'Abdullah's) presence and he confirmed it and listened to it and asked about it to let it prevail." Urwa also added, "None was mentioned as members of the slanderous group besides ('Abdullah) except Hassan bin Thabit and Mistah bin Uthatha and Hamna bint Jahsh along with others about whom I have no knowledge, but they were a group as Allah said. It is said that the one who carried most of the slander was 'Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul." Urwa added, "'Aisha disliked to have Hassan abused in her presence and she used to say, 'It was he who said: My father and his (i.e. my father's) father and my honor are all for the protection of Muhammad's honor from you.").
'Aisha added, "After we returned to Medina, I became ill for a month. The people were propagating the forged statements of the slanderers while I was unaware of anything of all that, but I felt that in my present ailment, I was not receiving the same kindness from Allah's Apostle as I used to receive when I got sick. (But now) Allah's Apostle would only come, greet me and say, 'How is that (lady)?' and leave. That roused my doubts, but I did not discover the evil (i.e. slander) till I went out after my convalescence, I went out with Um Mistah to Al-Manasi' where we used to answer the call of nature and we used not to go out (to answer the call of nature) except at night, and that was before we had latrines near our houses. And this habit of ours concerning evacuating the bowels, was similar to the habits of the old Arabs living in the deserts, for it would be troublesome for us to take latrines near our houses. So I and Um Mistah who was the daughter of Abu Ruhm bin Al-Muttalib bin Abd Manaf, whose mother was the daughter of Sakhr bin 'Amir and the aunt of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq and whose son was Mistah bin Uthatha bin 'Abbas bin Al-Muttalib, went out. I and Um Mistah returned to my house after we finished answering the call of nature. Um Mistah stumbled by getting her foot entangled in her covering sheet and on that she said, 'Let Mistah be ruined!' I said, 'What a hard word you have said. Do you abuse a man who took part in the battle of Badr?' On that she said, 'O you Hantah! Didn't you hear what he (i.e. Mistah) said?' I said, 'What did he say?'
Then she told me the slander of the people of Ifk. So my ailment was aggravated, and when I reached my home, Allah's Apostle came to me, and after greeting me, said, 'How is that (lady)?' I said, 'Will you allow me to go to my parents?' as I wanted to be sure about the news through them. Allah's Apostle allowed me (and I went to my parents) and asked my mother, 'O mother! What are the people talking about?' She said, 'O my daughter! Don't worry, for scarcely is there a charming woman who is loved by her husband and whose husband has other wives besides herself that they (i.e. women) would find faults with her.' I said, 'Subhan-Allah! (I testify the uniqueness of Allah). Are the people really talking in this way?' I kept on weeping that night till dawn I could neither stop weeping nor sleep then in the morning again, I kept on weeping. When the Divine Inspiration was delayed, Allah's Apostle called 'Ali bin Abi Talib and Usama bin Zaid to ask and consult them about divorcing me. Usama bin Zaid said what he knew of my innocence, and the respect he preserved in himself for me. Usama said, '(O Allah's Apostle!) She is your wife and we do not know anything except good about her.' 'Ali bin Abi Talib said, 'O Allah's Apostle! Allah does not put you in difficulty and there are plenty of women other than she, yet, ask the maid-servant who will tell you the truth.' On that Allah's Apostle called Barira (i.e. the maid-servant) and said, 'O Barira! Did you ever see anything which aroused your suspicion?' Barira said to him, 'By Him Who has sent you with the Truth. I have never seen anything in her (i.e. Aisha) which I would conceal, except that she is a young girl who sleeps leaving the dough of her family exposed so that the domestic goats come and eat it.'
So, on that day, Allah's Apostle got up on the pulpit and complained about 'Abdullah bin Ubai (bin Salul) before his companions, saying, 'O you Muslims! Who will relieve me from that man who has hurt me with his evil statement about my family? By Allah, I know nothing except good about my family and they have blamed a man about whom I know nothing except good and he used never to enter my home except with me.' Sad bin Mu'adh the brother of Banu 'Abd Al-Ashhal got up and said, 'O Allah's Apostle! I will relieve you from him; if he is from the tribe of Al-Aus, then I will chop his head off, and if he is from our brothers, i.e. Al-Khazraj, then order us, and we will fulfill your order.' On that, a man from Al-Khazraj got up. Um Hassan, his cousin, was from his branch tribe, and he was Sad bin Ubada, chief of Al-Khazraj. Before this incident, he was a pious man, but his love for his tribe goaded him into saying to Sad (bin Mu'adh). 'By Allah, you have told a lie; you shall not and cannot kill him. If he belonged to your people, you would not wish him to be killed.'
On that, Usaid bin Hudair who was the cousin of Sad (bin Mu'adh) got up and said to Sad bin 'Ubada, 'By Allah! You are a liar! We will surely kill him, and you are a hypocrite arguing on the behalf of hypocrites.' On this, the two tribes of Al-Aus and Al Khazraj got so much excited that they were about to fight while Allah's Apostle was standing on the pulpit. Allah's Apostle kept on quietening them till they became silent and so did he. All that day I kept on weeping with my tears never ceasing, and I could never sleep.
In the morning my parents were with me and I wept for two nights and a day with my tears never ceasing and I could never sleep till I thought that my liver would burst from weeping. So, while my parents were sitting with me and I was weeping, an Ansari woman asked me to grant her admittance. I allowed her to come in, and when she came in, she sat down and started weeping with me. While we were in this state, Allah's Apostle came, greeted us and sat down. He had never sat with me since that day of the slander. A month had elapsed and no Divine Inspiration came to him about my case. Allah's Apostle then recited Tashah-hud and then said, 'Amma Badu, O 'Aisha! I have been informed so-and-so about you; if you are innocent, then soon Allah will reveal your innocence, and if you have committed a sin, then repent to Allah and ask Him for forgiveness for when a slave confesses his sins and asks Allah for forgiveness, Allah accepts his repentance.'
When Allah's Apostle finished his speech, my tears ceased flowing completely that I no longer felt a single drop of tear flowing. I said to my father, 'Reply to Allah's Apostle on my behalf concerning what he has said.' My father said, 'By Allah, I do not know what to say to Allah's Apostle.' Then I said to my mother, 'Reply to Allah's Apostle on my behalf concerning what he has said.' She said, 'By Allah, I do not know what to say to Allah's Apostle.' In spite of the fact that I was a young girl and had a little knowledge of Qur'an, I said, 'By Allah, no doubt I know that you heard this (slanderous) speech so that it has been planted in your hearts (i.e. minds) and you have taken it as a truth. Now if I tell you that I am innocent, you will not believe me, and if confess to you about it, and Allah knows that I am innocent, you will surely believe me. By Allah, I find no similitude for me and you except that of Joseph's father when he said, '(For me) patience in the most fitting against that which you assert; it is Allah (Alone) Whose Help can be sought.' Then I turned to the other side and lay on my bed; and Allah knew then that I was innocent and hoped that Allah would reveal my innocence. But, by Allah, I never thought that Allah would reveal about my case, Divine Inspiration, that would be recited (forever) as I considered myself too unworthy to be talked of by Allah with something of my concern, but I hoped that Allah's Apostle might have a dream in which Allah would prove my innocence. But, by Allah, before Allah's Apostle left his seat and before any of the household left, the Divine Inspiration came to Allah's Apostle.
So there overtook him the same hard condition which used to overtake him, (when he used to be inspired Divinely). The sweat was dropping from his body like pearls though it was a wintry day and that was because of the weighty Statement which was being revealed to him. When that state of Allah's Apostle was over, he got up smiling, and the first word he said was, 'O 'Aisha! Allah has declared your innocence!' Then my Mother said to me, 'Get up and go to him (i.e. Allah's Apostle).' I replied, 'By Allah, I will not go to him, and I praise none but Allah.' So Allah revealed the ten Verses: 'Verily! They who spread the slander Are a gang, among you...' (24.11-20)
Allah revealed those Qur'anic Verses to declare my innocence. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq who used to disburse money for Mistah bin Uthatha because of his relationship to him and his poverty, said, 'By Allah, I will never give to Mistah bin Uthatha anything after what he has said about Aisha.' Then Allah revealed:
'And let not those among you who are good and wealthy swear not to give (any sort of help) to their kinsmen, those in need, and those who have left their homes for Allah's Cause, let them pardon and forgive. Do you not love that Allah should forgive you? And Allah is oft-Forgiving Most Merciful.' (24.22)
Abu Bakr As-Siddiq said, 'Yes, by Allah, I would like that Allah forgive me,' and went on giving Mistah the money he used to give him before. He also added, 'By Allah, I will never deprive him of it at all.' -
Aisha further said: "Allah's Apostle also asked Zainab bint Jahsh (i.e. his wife) about my case. He said to Zainab, 'What do you know and what did you see?" She replied, "O Allah's Apostle! I refrain from claiming falsely that I have heard or seen anything. By Allah, I know nothing except good (about 'Aisha).' From amongst the wives of the Prophet Zainab was my peer (in beauty and in the love she received from the Prophet) but Allah saved her from that evil because of her piety. Her sister Hamna, started struggling on her behalf and she was destroyed along with those who were destroyed. The man who was blamed said, 'Subhan-Allah! By Him in Whose Hand my soul is, I have never uncovered the cover (i.e. veil) of any female.' Later on the man was martyred in Allah's Cause."
Women Leadership Not Allowed
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 5.116 Narrated byAbu Wail
When 'Ali sent 'Ammar and Al-Hasan to (the people of) Kufa to urge them to fight, 'Ammar addressed them saying, "I know that she (i.e. 'Aisha) is the wife of the Prophet in this world and in the Hereafter (world to come), but Allah has put you to test, whether you will follow Him (i.e. Allah) or her."
War Amongst Muslims
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 6.173 Narrated byIbn Umar
That a man came to him (while two groups of Muslims were fighting) and said, "O Abu 'Abdur Rahman! Don't you hear what Allah has mentioned in His Book:
'And if two groups of believers fight against each other...' (49.9)
So what prevents you from fighting as Allah has mentioned in His Book?' " Ibn 'Umar said, "O son of my brother! I would rather be blamed for not fighting because of this Verse than to be blamed because of another Verse where Allah says:
'And whoever kills a believer intentionally...' " (4.93) Then that man said, "Allah says: 'And fight them until there is no more afflictions (worshipping other besides Allah) and the religion (i.e. worship) will be all for Allah (Alone).' " (8.39) Ibn 'Umar said, "We did this during the lifetime of Allah's Apostle when the number of Muslims was small, and a man was put to trial because of his religion, the pagans would either kill or chain him; but when the Muslims increased (and Islam spread), there was no persecution." When that man saw that Ibn 'Umar did not agree to his proposal, he said, "What is your opinion regarding 'Ali and 'Uthman?" Ibn 'Umar said, "What is my opinion regarding Ali and 'Uthman? As for 'Uthman, Allah forgave him and you disliked to forgive him, and Ali is the cousin and son-in-law of Allah's Apostle." Then he pointed out with his hand and said, "And that is his daughter's (house) which you can see."
War Against Apostates
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 2.483 Narrated byAbu Huraira
When Allah's Apostle died and Abu Bakr became the caliph some Arabs renegade (reverted to disbelief) (Abu Bakr decided to declare war against them), 'Umar, said to Abu Bakr, "How can you fight with these people although Allah's Apostle said, 'I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight the people till they say: "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and whoever said it then he will save his life and property from me except on trespassing the law (rights and conditions for which he will be punished justly), and his accounts will be with Allah.' " Abu Bakr said, "By Allah! I will fight those who differentiate between the prayer and the Zakat as Zakat is the compulsory right to be taken from the property (according to Allah's orders). By Allah! If they refuse to pay me even a she-kid which they used to pay at the time of Allah's Apostle . I would fight with them for withholding it" Then 'Umar said, "By Allah, it was nothing, but Allah opened Abu Bakr's chest towards the decision (to fight) and I came to know that his decision was right."
Sahih Muslim HadithHadith 6927 Narrated byAbdullah ibn Mas'ud
Once there blew a red storm in Kufah and there came a person who had nothing to say but (these words): Abdullah ibn Mas'ud, the Last Hour has come. He (Abdullah ibn Mas'ud) was sitting reclining against something, and he said: The Last Hour will not come until the people divide inheritance and rejoice over booty. Then He said pointing towards Syria, with a gesture of his hand like this: The enemy will muster strength against the Muslims and the Muslims will muster strength against them (Syrians). I said: You mean Rome? He said: Yes, and there will be a terrible fight. The Muslims will prepare a detachment (for fighting unto death) which will not return unless victorious. They will fight until darkness intervenes. Both sides will return without being victorious and both will be wiped out. The Muslims will again prepare a detachment for fighting unto death so that they may not return unless victorious. When it is the fourth day, a new detachment from the remnant of the Muslims will be prepared and Allah will decree that the enemy will be routed. They would fight such a fight the like of which has not been seen, so fierce that even if a bird were to pass their flanks, it would fall down dead before reaching the other end. (There will be such a large scale massacre) that when counting will be done, (only) one out of a hundred men related to one another would be found alive. So what can be the joy at the spoils of such war and what inheritance can be divided? They will be in this very state when they will hear of a calamity more horrible than this. A cry will reach them: The Dajjal has taken your place among your offspring. They will therefore throw away what is in their hands and go forward, sending ten horsemen as a scouting party. Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) said: I know their names, the names of their forefathers and the colour of their horses. They will be the best horsemen on the surface of the Earth on that day or among the best horsemen on the surface of the Earth on that day.
Sahih Muslim HadithHadith 6924 Narrated byAbuHurayrah
Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) said: The Last Hour will not come until the Romans land at al-A'maq or in Dabiq. An army consisting of the best (soldiers) of the people on Earth at that time will come from Medina (to oppose them). When they arrange themselves in ranks, the Romans will say: Do not stand between us and those (Muslims) who took prisoners from among us. Let us fight them. The Muslims will say: Nay, by Allah, we shall never turn aside from you and from our brethren so that you may fight them. They will then fight and a third (part) of the army, whom Allah will never forgive, will run away. A third (part of the army), which will be constituted of excellent martyrs in Allah's eyes, would be killed. The third who will never be put on trial will win and they will be the conquerors of Constantinople. As they are busy in distributing the spoils of war (amongst themselves) after hanging their swords by the olive trees, Satan will cry: The Dajjal has taken your place among your families. They will then come out, but it will be of no avail. When they reach Syria, he will come out while they are still preparing themselves for battle, drawing up the ranks. Certainly, the time of prayer will come and then Jesus (peace be upon him), son of Mary, descend and will lead them in prayer. When the enemy of Allah see him, it will (disappear) just as salt dissolves in water and if he (Jesus) were not to confront them at all, even then it would dissolve completely. Allah would kill them by his hand and he would show them their blood on his lance (the lance of Jesus Christ).
A Guardian From Allah Will Be Guarding You
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.495 Narrated byAbu Said Al Khudri
The Prophet said, "If while you are praying, somebody intends to pass in front of you, prevent him; and should he insist, prevent him again; and if he insists again, fight with him (i.e. prevent him violently e.g. pushing him violently), because such a person is (like) a devil."
Narrated Muhammad bin Sirin: Abu Huraira said, "Allah's Apostle put me in charge of the Zakat of Ramadan (i.e. Zakat-ul-Fitr). Someone came to me and started scooping some of the foodstuff of (Zakat) with both hands. I caught him and told him that I would take him to Allah's Apostle." Then Abu Huraira told the whole narration and added "He (i.e. the thief) said, 'Whenever you go to your bed, recite the verse of "Al-Kursi" (2.255) for then a guardian from Allah will be guarding you, and Satan will not approach you till dawn.' " On that the Prophet said, "He told you the truth, though he is a liar, and he (the thief) himself was the Satan."
Invoking Evil On Evil Doers
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.299 Narrated byAnas
The people of the tribes of Ril, Dhakwan, 'Usiya and Bani Lihyan came to the Prophet and claimed that they had embraced Islam, and they requested him to support them with some men to fight their own people. The Prophet supported them with seventy men from the Ansar whom we used to call Al-Qurra' (i.e. scholars) who (out of piety) used to cut wood during the day and pray all the night. So, those people took the (seventy) men till they reached a place called Bi'r-Ma'ana where they betrayed and martyred them. So, the Prophet invoked evil on the tribe of Ril, Dhakwan and Bani Lihyan for one month in the prayer.Narrated Qatada: Anas told us that they (i.e. Muslims) used to recite a Qur'anic verse concerning those martyrs which was: "O Allah! Let our people be informed on our behalf that we have met our Lord Who has got pleased with us and made us pleased." Then the verse was cancelled.
Fight For Allah Not For Fame
Hadith QudsiHadith Qudsi 6The first of people against whom judgment will be pronounced on the Day of Resurrection will be a man who died a martyr. He will be brought and Allah will make known to him His favours and he will recognize them. [ The Almighty] will say: And what did you do about them? He will say: I fought for you until I died a martyr. He will say: You have lied - you did but fight that it might be said [of you]: He is courageous. And so it was said. Then he will be ordered to be dragged along on his face until he is cast into Hell-fire. [Another] will be a man who has studied [religious] knowledge and has taught it and who used to recite the Quran. He will be brought and Allah will make known to his His favours and he will recognize them. [The Almighty] will say: And what did you do about them? He will say: I studied [religious] knowledge and I taught it and I recited the Quran for Your sake. He will say: You have lied - you did but study [religious] knowledge that it might be said [of you]: He is learned. And you recited the Quran that it might be said [of you]: He is a reciter. And so it was said. Then he will be ordered to be dragged along on his face until he is cast into Hell-fire. [Another] will be a man whom Allah had made rich and to whom He had given all kinds of wealth. He will be brought and Allah will make known to his His favours and he will recognize them. [The Almighty] will say: And what did you do about them? He will say: I left no path [untrodden] in which You like money to be spent without spending in it for Your sake. He will say: You have lied - you did but do so that it might be said [of you]: He is open-handed. And so it was said. Then he will be ordered to be dragged along on his face until he is cast into Hell-fire.
Obey Authority As Long As It Follows Islam
Sahih Muslim HadithHadith 4569 Narrated byUmm Salamah
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: In the near future there will be Amirs and you will like their good deeds and dislike their bad deeds. One who sees through their bad deeds (and tries to prevent their repetition by his hand or through his speech), is absolved from blame, but one who hates their bad deeds (in the heart of his heart, being unable to prevent their recurrence by his hand or his tongue), is (also) safe (so far as God"s wrath is concerned). But one who approves of their bad deeds and imitates them is spiritually ruined. People asked (the Prophet): Shouldn't we fight against them? He replied: No, as long as they say their prayers.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 9.178 Narrated byJunada bin Abi Umaiya
We entered upon 'Ubada bin As-Samit while he was sick. We said, "May Allah make you healthy. Will you tell us a Hadith you heard from the Prophet and by which Allah may make you benefit?" He said, "The Prophet called us and we gave him the Pledge of allegiance for Islam, and among the conditions on which he took the Pledge from us, was that we were to listen and obey (the orders) both at the time when we were active and at the time when we were tired, and at our difficult time and at our ease and to be obedient to the ruler and give him his right even if he did not give us our right, and not to fight against him unless we noticed him having open Kufr (disbelief) for which we would have a proof with us from Allah."
Fight For Your Right
Sahih Muslim HadithHadith 259 Narrated byAbuHurayrah
A person came to the Messenger of Allah what do you think if a man comes to me in order to appropriate my possession? He (the Prophet) said: Don't surrender your possession to him. He (the inquirer) said: If he fights me? He (the Prophet) remarked: Then fight (with him). He (the inquirer) again said: What do you think if I am killed? He (the Prophet) observed: You would be a martyr: He (the inquirer) said: What do you think of him (Messenger of Allah) if I kill him. He (the Prophet) said: He would be in the Fire.
Do Not Kill If A Person Accepts Islam
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 9.11 Narrated byUsama bin Zaid bin Haritha
Allah's Apostle sent us (to fight) against Al-Huraqa (one of the sub-tribes) of Juhaina. We reached those people in the morning and defeated them. A man from the Ansar and I chased one of their men and when we attacked him, he said, "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah." The Ansari refrained from killing him but I stabbed him with my spear till I killed him. When we reached (Medina), this news reached the Prophet. He said to me, "O Usama! You killed him after he had said, 'None has the right to be worshipped but Allah?' " I said, "O Allah's Apostle! He said so in order to save himself." The Prophet said, "You killed him after he had said, 'None has the right to be worshipped but Allah.' " The Prophet kept on repeating that statement till I wished I had not been a Muslim before that day.
First Man To Fight For Allah
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 8.460 Narrated bySad
I was the first man among the Arabs to throw an arrow for Allah's Cause. We used to fight in Allah's Cause while we had nothing to eat except the leaves of the Hubla and the Sumur trees (desert trees) so that we discharged excrement like that of sheep (i.e. unmixed droppings). Today the (people of the) tribe of Bani Asad teach me the laws of Islam. If so, then I am lost, and all my efforts of that hard time had gone in vain.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.178 Narrated byAmr bin Taghlib
The Prophet said, "One of the portents of the Hour is that you will fight with people wearing shoes made of hair; and one of the portents of the Hour is that you will fight with broad-faced people whose faces will look like shields coated with leather."
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.180 Narrated byAbu Huraira
The Prophet said, "The Hour will not be established till you fight with people wearing shoes made of hair. And the Hour will not be established till you fight with people whose faces look like shields coated with leather. " (Abu Huraira added, "(They will be) small-eyed, flat nosed, and their faces will look like shields coated with leather.")
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.179 Narrated byAbu Huraira
Allah's Apostle said, "The Hour will not be established until you fight with the Turks; people with small eyes, red faces, and flat noses. Their faces will look like shields coated with leather. The Hour will not be established till you fight with people whose shoes are made of hair."
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.787 Narrated byAbu Huraira
The Prophet said, "The Hour will not be established till you fight a nation wearing hairy shoes, and till you fight the Turks, who will have small eyes, red faces and flat noses; and their faces will be like flat shields. And you will find that the best people are those who hate responsibility of ruling most of all till they are chosen to be the rulers. And the people are of different natures: The best in the pre-Islamic period are the best in Islam. A time will come when any of you will love to see me rather than to have his family and property doubled."
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.790 Narrated byUmar bin Taghlib
I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "Near the Hour you will fight with people who will wear hairy shoes; and you will also fight people with flat faces like shields."
Allah knows best